and

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English

English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

Pronunciation

  • (stressed) enPR: ănd, ĕnd IPA(key): /ænd/, /ɛnd/
  • (unstressed) enPR: ən(d) IPA(key): /ənd/, /ən/, /æn/, /ɛn/, /ɛnd/, /n̩d/, /n̩/
    • (file)
    • (file)
  • (unstressed or, for some speakers, stressed) Homophone: end

Etymology 1

From Middle English and, an, from Old English and, ond, end, from Proto-Germanic *andi, *anþi, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂énti (facing opposite, near, in front of, before). Cognate with Scots an (and), North Frisian en (and), West Frisian en, in (and), Low German un (and), Dutch en (and), German und (and), Danish end (but), Swedish än (yet, but), Icelandic enn (still, yet), Albanian edhe (and) (dialectal ênde, ênne), ende (still, yet, therefore), Latin ante (opposite, in front of), and Ancient Greek ἀντί (antí, opposite, facing).

Alternative forms

Conjunction

and

  1. As a coordinating conjunction; expressing two elements to be taken together or in addition to each other.
    1. Used simply to connect two noun phrases, adjectives or adverbs.
      • c. 1430 (reprinted 1888), Thomas Austin, ed., Two Fifteenth-century Cookery-books. Harleian ms. 279 (ab. 1430), & Harl. ms. 4016 (ab. 1450), with Extracts from Ashmole ms. 1429, Laud ms. 553, & Douce ms. 55 , London: N. Trübner & Co. for the Early English Text Society, volume I, OCLC 374760, page 11:
        Soupes dorye. — Take gode almaunde mylke caste þher-to Safroun an Salt
      • c. 1596–1598 (date written), William Shakespeare, “The Merchant of Venice”, in Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies  (First Folio), London: Isaac Iaggard, and Ed Blount, published 1623, OCLC 606515358, :
        Sweet lady, you have given me life and living;
      • 1611, The Holy Bible,  (King James Version), London: Robert Barker, , OCLC 964384981, Genesis 1:1:
        In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.
      • 1817 December, , Persuasion; published in Northanger Abbey: And Persuasion. , volume (please specify |volume=III or IV), London: John Murray, , 1818, OCLC 318384910:
        as for Mrs. Smith, she had claims of various kinds to recommend her quickly and permanently.
      • 2011, Mark Townsend, The Guardian, 5 November:
        ‘The UKBA has some serious explaining to do if it is routinely carrying out such abusive and unlawful inspections.’
    2. Simply connecting two clauses or sentences.
      • 1991, Jung Chang, Wild Swans:
        When she saw several boys carrying a huge wooden case full of porcelain, she mumbled to Jinming that she was going to have a look, and left the room.
      • 2011, Helena Smith & Tom Kington, The Guardian, 5 November:
        "Consensus is essential for the country," he said, adding that he was not "tied" to his post and was willing to step aside.
    3. Introducing a clause or sentence which follows on in time or consequence from the first.
      • 1996, David Beasley, Chocolate for the Poor:
        ‘But if you think you can get it, Christian, you're a fool. Set one foot upcountry and I'll kill you.’
      • 2004, Will Buckley, The Observer:, 22 August:
        One more error and all the good work she had done on Friday would be for nought.
      • 2007: Jimmy Carr, 8 out of 10 Cats, 13th day of July episode
        Romance is dead; men killed it, and made women clean up the mess.
    4. (obsolete) Yet; but.
    5. Used to connect certain numbers: connecting units when they precede tens (not dated); connecting tens and units to hundreds, thousands etc. (now often omitted in US); to connect fractions to wholes.
    6. (now colloquial or literary) Used to connect more than two elements together in a chain, sometimes to stress the number of elements.
      • 1599 (first performance), William Shakespeare, “The Tragedie of Iulius Cæsar”, in Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies  (First Folio), London: Isaac Iaggard, and Ed Blount, published 1623, OCLC 606515358, :
        And these does she apply, for warnings and portents, / And euils imminent; and on her knee / Hath begg'd, that I will stay at home to day.
      • 1939, Langley, Ryerson & Woolf, The Wizard of Oz (screenplay):
        Lions, and tigers, and bears! Oh, my!
    7. Connecting two identical elements, with implications of continued or infinite repetition.
      • 1611, The Holy Bible,  (King James Version), London: Robert Barker, , OCLC 964384981, Psalms CXLV::
        I will extol thee, my God, O king; and I will bless thy name for ever and ever.
      • 2011, Jonathan Watts, The Guardian, 18 March:
        He was at work in a nearby city when the tsunami struck. ‘As soon as I saw it, I called home. It rang and rang, but there was no answer.’
    8. Introducing a parenthetical or explanatory clause.
      • 1918, George W. E. Russell, Prime Ministers and Some Others:
        The word "capable" occurs in Mr. Fisher's Bill, and rightly, because our mental and physical capacities are infinitely varied.
      • 2008, The Guardian, 29 Jan 2008:
        President Pervez Musharraf is undoubtedly sincere in his belief that he, and he alone, can save Pakistan from the twin perils of terrorism and anarchy.
    9. Introducing the continuation of narration from a previous understood point; also used alone as a question: ‘and so what?’.
      • 1611, The Holy Bible,  (King James Version), London: Robert Barker, , OCLC 964384981, Revelation XIV::
        And I heard a voice from heaven, as the voice of many waters, and as the voice of a great thunder: and I heard the voice of harpers harping with their harps .
      • 1860 December – 1861 August, Charles Dickens, Great Expectations , volume (please specify |volume=I to III), London: Chapman and Hall, , published October 1861, OCLC 3359935:
        ‘You take it smoothly now,’ said I, ‘but you were very serious last night, when you swore it was Death.’ ‘And so I swear it is Death,’ said he, putting his pipe back in his mouth .
      • 1914, Saki, ‘The Lull’, Beasts and Superbeasts:
        And, Vera,’ added Mrs. Durmot, turning to her sixteen-year-old niece, ‘be careful what colour ribbon you wear in your hair .’
    10. (now regional or somewhat colloquial) Used to connect two verbs where the second is dependent on the first: ‘to’. Used especially after come, go and try.
      • 1817 (date written), Jane Austen, R W Chambers, editor, Fragment of a Novel Written by Jane Austen, January–March 1817  [Sanditon], Oxford, Oxfordshire: Clarendon Press, published 1925, OCLC 542356:
        Beyond paying her a few charming compliments and amusing her with gay conversation, had he done anything at all to try and gain her affection?
      • 1989, James Kelman, A Disaffection:
        Remember and help yourself to the soup! called Gavin.
    11. Introducing a qualitative difference between things having the same name; "as well as other".
      • 1936, The Labour Monthly, vol. XVIII:
        Undoubtedly every party makes mistakes. But there are mistakes and mistakes.
      • 1972, Esquire, vol. LXXVIII:
        "There are managers and there are managers," he tells me. "I'm totally involved in every aspect of Nina's career."
    12. Used to combine numbers in addition; plus (with singular or plural verb).
      • 1791, James Boswell, Life of Samuel Johnson:
        ‘Nobody attempts to dispute that two and two make four: but with contests concerning moral truth, human passions are generally mixed .’
      • 1871, Lewis Carroll, Through the Looking-Glass, and What Alice Found There:
        ‘Can you do Addition?’ the White Queen asked. ‘What's one and one and one and one and one and one and one and one and one and one?’
  2. (heading) Expressing a condition.
    1. (now US dialect) If; provided that.
      • 1485, Sir Thomas Malory, Le Morte Darthur, Book VII:
        "Where ys Sir Launcelot?" seyde King Arthure. "And he were here, he wolde nat grucche to do batayle for you."
      • 1526, [William Tyndale, transl.], The Newe Testamẽt  (Tyndale Bible), , OCLC 762018299, Matthew ]:
        Peter answered, and sayde: master, and thou be he, bidde me come unto the on the water.
      • 1958, Shirley Ann Grau, The Hard Blue Sky:
        "And he went slower," Mike said softly, "he go better."
    2. (obsolete) As if, as though.
  3. (mathematics, logic) connecting two well-formed formulas to create a well formed formula that requires the new formula to only be true when each of the two are true.
Derived terms
Related terms
See also
Usage notes
Synonyms
Translations

Noun

and (plural ands)

  1. (music, often informal) In rhythm, the second half of a divided beat.
    • 2006, Goodwin, Gordon, Gordon Goodwin's Big Phat Band: Trumpet, page 51:
      The same goes for measure 42, when you begin the phrase on the and of 1, because that kind of lick can easily bog down the time.

Etymology 2

From Middle English ande, from Old English anda (grudge, enmity, malice, envy, hatred, anger, zeal, annoyance, vexation; zeal; injury, mischief; fear, horror) and Old Norse andi (breath, wind, spirit); both from Proto-Germanic *anadô (breath, anger, zeal), from Proto-Indo-European *h₂enh₁- (to breathe, blow). Cognate with German Ahnd, And (woe, grief), Danish ånde (breath), Swedish anda, ande (spirit, breath, wind, ingenuity, intellect), Icelandic andi (spirit), Albanian ëndë (pleasure, delight), Latin animus (spirit, soul). Related to onde.

Alternative forms

Noun

and (plural ands)

  1. (UK dialectal) Breath.
  2. (UK dialectal) Sea smoke; steam fog.

Etymology 3

From Middle English anden, from Old English andian (to be envious or jealous, envy) and Old Norse anda (to breathe); both from Proto-Germanic *anadōną (to breathe, sputter). Cognate with German ahnden (to avenge, punish), Danish ånde (to breathe), Swedish andas (to breathe), Icelandic anda (to breathe). See above.

Alternative forms

Verb

and (third-person singular simple present ands, present participle anding, simple past and past participle anded)

  1. (UK dialectal, intransitive) To breathe; whisper; devise; imagine.

Anagrams


Azerbaijani

Other scripts
Cyrillic анд
Perso-Arabic آند

Etymology

From Proto-Turkic *Ānt (oath). Cognate with Old Turkic 𐰦(nt), Turkish ant.

Pronunciation

Noun

and (definite accusative andı, plural andlar)

  1. oath

Declension

    Declension of and
singular plural
nominative and
andlar
definite accusative andı
andları
dative anda
andlara
locative andda
andlarda
ablative anddan
andlardan
definite genitive andın
andların
    Possessive forms of and
nominative
singular plural
mənim (my) andım andlarım
sənin (your) andın andların
onun (his/her/its) andı andları
bizim (our) andımız andlarımız
sizin (your) andınız andlarınız
onların (their) andı or andları andları
accusative
singular plural
mənim (my) andımı andlarımı
sənin (your) andını andlarını
onun (his/her/its) andını andlarını
bizim (our) andımızı andlarımızı
sizin (your) andınızı andlarınızı
onların (their) andını or andlarını andlarını
dative
singular plural
mənim (my) andıma andlarıma
sənin (your) andına andlarına
onun (his/her/its) andına andlarına
bizim (our) andımıza andlarımıza
sizin (your) andınıza andlarınıza
onların (their) andına or andlarına andlarına
locative
singular plural
mənim (my) andımda andlarımda
sənin (your) andında andlarında
onun (his/her/its) andında andlarında
bizim (our) andımızda andlarımızda
sizin (your) andınızda andlarınızda
onların (their) andında or andlarında andlarında
ablative
singular plural
mənim (my) andımdan andlarımdan
sənin (your) andından andlarından
onun (his/her/its) andından andlarından
bizim (our) andımızdan andlarımızdan
sizin (your) andınızdan andlarınızdan
onların (their) andından or andlarından andlarından
genitive
singular plural
mənim (my) andımın andlarımın
sənin (your) andının andlarının
onun (his/her/its) andının andlarının
bizim (our) andımızın andlarımızın
sizin (your) andınızın andlarınızın
onların (their) andının or andlarının andlarının

Derived terms

References

  1. ^ Starostin, Sergei; Dybo, Anna; Mudrak, Oleg (2003), “*Ānt”, in Etymological dictionary of the Altaic languages (Handbuch der Orientalistik; VIII.8), Leiden, New York, Köln: E.J. Brill

Danish

Etymology

From Old Norse ǫnd, from Proto-Germanic *anadz, cognate with German Ente, Dutch eend. The Germanic noun derives from Proto-Indo-European *h₂énh₂ts (duck), which is also the source of Latin anas, Ancient Greek νῆττα (nêtta), Lithuanian ántis, Sanskrit आति (ātí).

Pronunciation

Noun

and c (singular definite anden, plural indefinite ænder)

  1. duck
  2. canard (false or misleading report or story)

Declension

Further reading


Estonian

Etymology

From the root of andma. Cognate with Finnish anti.

Pronunciation

Noun

and (genitive anni, partitive andi)

  1. offering, gift
  2. alms, donation
  3. giftedness, talent
  4. act of giving

Declension


Gothic

Romanization

and

  1. Romanization of 𐌰𐌽𐌳

Livonian

Alternative forms

Etymology

From Proto-Finnic *antadak, from Proto-Uralic *ëmta-.

Pronunciation

Verb

and

  1. (Salaca) to give

Middle English

Alternative forms

Etymology

From Old English and, ond, end, from Proto-West Germanic *andi, from Proto-Germanic *andi, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂énti.

Pronunciation

Conjunction

and

  1. and, and then (connects two elements of a sentence)
    • c. 1200, Ormin, “Dedication”, in Ormulum, lines 1-4:
      Nu broþerr Wallterr broþerr min / Affterr þe flæshess kinde / broþerr min i Crisstendom / Þurrh fulluhht þurrh trowwþe
      Now, brother Walter, my brother / by way of blood relation / and my brother in Christendom / through baptising and through faith
    • c. 1340, Dan Michel, “Þe oþer Godes Heste”, in Ayenbite of Inwyt:
      Ac þe ilke / þet zuereþ hidousliche be god / oþer by his halȝen / and him to-breȝþ / and zayþ him sclondres / þet ne byeþ naȝt to zigge: þe ilke zeneȝeþ dyadliche
      But one who / hideously swears by God / or by his emissaries / and who tears him apart / while saying to him lies / that shouldn't be said: they sin grievously.
    • c. 1380, Sir Firumbras, lines 4413-4414:
      "Lordes", quaþ Richard, "Buþ noȝt agast, Ac holdeþ forþ ȝour way / an hast & boldeliche doþ ȝour dede "
      "Lords", said Richard, "Don't be frightened, but hold your way forwards / and quickly and boldy do your deed "
    • c. 1395, John Wycliffe, John Purvey , transl., Bible (Wycliffite Bible (later version), MS Lich 10.)‎, published c. 1410, Apocalips 1:8, page 117v; republished as Wycliffe's translation of the New Testament, Lichfield: Bill Endres, 2010:
      ȝhe amen / I am alpha oo þe bigynnyng þe ende ſeiþ þe loꝛd god þat is / þat was. that is to comynge almyȝti
      You, Amen! I am Alpha and O, the beginning and the end, says the Lord God; that is, that was, and that which will come, almighty.
    • 1387–1400, Chaucer, “Here Bygynneth the Book of the Tales of Caunt́burẏ”, in The Tales of Caunt́burẏ (Hengwrt Chaucer; Peniarth Manuscript 392D), Aberystwyth, Ceredigion: National Library of Wales, published c. 1400–1410], OCLC 14061358, folio 2, recto:
      Whan that Auerill wt his shoures soote / The droghte of march hath ꝑced to the roote / And bathed euery veyne in swich lycour / Of which v̄tu engendred is the flour
      When that April, with its sweet showers / Has pierced March's drought to the root / And bathed every vein in fluid such that / with its power, the flower is made
  2. however, yet, but, though. while
  3. if, supposing that, whether.
  4. (rare) As though, like, in a manner suggesting.

Descendants

  • English: and
  • Scots: an
  • Yola: an, an', and

References


Norwegian Bokmål

Norwegian Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia no

Etymology

From Old Norse ǫnd, from Proto-Germanic *anadz, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂enh₁-ti- (duck).

Pronunciation

Noun

and f or m (definite singular anda or anden, indefinite plural ender, definite plural endene)

  1. a duck
  2. canard (false or misleading report or story)

Derived terms

References


Norwegian Nynorsk

Pronunciation

Etymology 1

Norwegian Nynorsk Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia nn

From Old Norse ǫnd, from Proto-Germanic *anadz, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂enh₁-ti- (duck). Akin to English ennet.

Alternative forms

Noun

and f (definite singular anda, indefinite plural ender, definite plural endene)

  1. a duck (waterbird)
Declension
Derived terms

Etymology 2

From Old Norse ǫnd.

Alternative forms

Noun

and f (definite singular anda, indefinite plural ander, definite plural andene)

  1. breath, spirit
    Synonyms: ande, pust

Etymology 3

Verb

and

  1. imperative of ande

References

Anagrams


Old English

Alternative forms

Etymology

From Proto-Germanic *anda, *andi, probably from Proto-Indo-European *h₂énti (facing opposite, near, in front of, before). Compare Old Frisian and, Old Saxon endi, Old High German unti, Old Norse enn.

Pronunciation

Conjunction

and

  1. and

Synonyms

Descendants

Adverb

and

  1. even; also

Old Frisian

Alternative forms

Etymology

From Proto-Germanic *andi, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂énti (facing opposite, near, in front of, before). Compare Old English and, Old Saxon endi, Old High German unti, Old Norse enn.

Conjunction

and

  1. and

Descendants

  • North Frisian: en
  • Saterland Frisian: un
  • West Frisian: en, in

Old Irish

Etymology

From Proto-Celtic *andom, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁n̥dó. The adverbial sense of this term is the original one, and it has an etymology independent of i.

Pronunciation

Pronoun

and

  1. third-person singular masculine/neuter dative of hi: in him, in it
    • c. 800–825, Diarmait, Milan Glosses on the Psalms, published in Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus (reprinted 1987, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies), edited and with translations by Whitley Stokes and John Strachan, vol. I, pp. 7–483, Ml. 31b23
      in bélrai .i. is and atá gním tengad isind huiliu labramar-ni
      of speech, i.e. the action of the tongue is in it, in all that we say

Adverb

and

  1. there
    • c. 850-875, Turin Glosses and Scholia on St. Mark, published in Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus (reprinted 1987, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies), edited and with translations by Whitley Stokes and John Strachan, vol. I, pp. 484–94, Tur. 110c
      Ba bés leusom do·bertis dá boc leu dochum tempuil, ⁊ no·léicthe indala n‑ái fon díthrub co pecad in popuil, ⁊ do·bertis maldachta foir, ⁊ n⟨o⟩·oircthe didiu and ó popul tar cenn a pecthae ind aile.
      It was a custom with them that two he-goats were brought by them to the temple, and one of the two of them was let go to the wilderness with the sin of the people, and curses were put upon him, and thereupon the other was slain there by the people for their sins.
  2. then, in that case
    • c. 800, Würzburg Glosses on the Pauline Epistles, published in Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus (reprinted 1987, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies), edited and with translations by Whitley Stokes and John Strachan, vol. I, pp. 499–712, Wb. 4a27
      Is and didiu for·téit spiritus ar n-énirti-ni in tain bes n-inun accobor lenn .i. la corp et anim et la spirut.
      So it is then that the spirit helps our weakness when we have the same desire, to wit, body and soul and spirit.

Descendants


Scots

Conjunction

and

  1. Alternative form of an

Usage notes

  • While and is relatively often written due to English influence, it is seldom pronounced as such, making way for an.

References


Swedish

Etymology

From Old Norse ǫnd, from Proto-Germanic *anadz, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂énh₂t- (duck).

Pronunciation

Noun

and c

  1. a wild duck

Declension

Declension of and 
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative and anden änder änderna
Genitive ands andens änders ändernas

Related terms

See also

  • anka (domesticated duck)

References

Anagrams


Turkish

Noun

and

  1. Archaic form of ant (oath).

Yola

Conjunction

and

  1. Alternative form of an (and)
    • 1867, GLOSSARY OF THE DIALECT OF FORTH AND BARGY:
      Jaude and maude.
      Crowds and throngs.

References

  • Jacob Poole (1867), William Barnes, editor, A Glossary, With some Pieces of Verse, of the old Dialect of the English Colony in the Baronies of Forth and Bargy, County of Wexford, Ireland, London: J. Russell Smith, page 49

Zealandic

Etymology

From Middle Dutch hant, from Old Dutch hant, from Proto-Germanic *handuz.

Noun

and f (plural )

  1. hand

Alternative forms