in

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Translingual

Symbol

in

  1. (international standards, obsolete) Former ISO 639-1 language code for Indonesian.
    Synonym: id (current)

English

Pronunciation

Etymology 1

PIE word
*h₁en

Preposition and verb from Middle English in, from Old English in, from Proto-Germanic *in.

Adverb, noun and adjective from Middle English in, from Old English inn and inne, from Proto-Germanic *innai.

Alternative forms

  • i' (colloquial, poetic)

Preposition

A ship in a bottle.
A dog in a sink.

in

  1. Used to indicate location, inclusion, or position within spatial, temporal or other limits.
    1. Contained by.
      The dog is in the kennel.
      There were three pickles in a jar.
    2. Within the bounds or limits of.
      I like living in the city.
      There are lots of trees in the park.
    3. Surrounded by; among; amidst.
      We are in the enemy camp.
      Her plane is in the air.
      Waiter! There's a fly in my soup!
    4. Wearing (an item of clothing).
      I glanced over at the pretty girl in the red dress.
    5. Part of; a member of; out of; from among.
      You are one in a million.
      She's in an orchestra.
    6. During (a period of time).
      My birthday is in the first week of December.
      Easter falls in the fourth lunar month.
      The country reached a high level of prosperity in his first term.
    7. Within (a certain elapsed time); by the end of.
      Will you be able to finish this in a week?
      The massacre resulted in over 1000 deaths in three hours.
    8. At the end of (a period of time).
      They said they would call us in a week.
    9. (grammar, phonetics) Characterized by.
      Many English nouns in -is form their plurals in -es.
  2. Into.
    • 2011 January 8, Paul Fletcher, “Stevenage 3-1 Newcastle”, in BBC:
      The ball was accidentally kicked in Kevin Nolan's face in the opening seconds of the contest – an incident that set the tone for an extremely uncomfortable encounter for the Premier League side.
    Less water gets in your boots this way.
    She stood there looking in the window longingly.
  3. Used to indicate limit, qualification, condition, or circumstance.
    • 1898, J. Meade Falkner, chapter 4, in Moonfleet, London; Toronto, Ont.: Jonathan Cape, published 1934:
      In returning to the vault, I had no very sure purpose in mind; only a vague surmise that this finding of Blackbeard's coffin would somehow lead to the finding of his treasure.
    In replacing the faucet washers, he felt he was making his contribution to the environment.
    1. Indicating an order or arrangement.
      My fat rolls around in folds.
    2. Denoting a state of the subject.
      He stalked away in anger.
      John is in a coma.
    3. Indicates, connotatively, a place-like form of someone's (or something's) personality, as his, her or its psychic and physical characteristics.
      You've got a friend in me.
      He's met his match in her.
    4. Pertaining to; with regard to.
      There has been no change in his condition.
      What grade did he get in English?
  4. Used to indicate means, medium, format, genre, or instrumentality.
    1. (of something offered or given in an exchange) In the form of, in the denomination of.
      Please pay me in cash — preferably in tens and twenties.
      The deposit can be in any legal tender, even in gold.
      Her generosity was rewarded in the success of its recipients.
      • 2014, Carla Bethmann, Clean, Friendly, Profitable?: Tourism, page 114:
        tourists sometimes attempt to pay in euros or British pounds.
    2. Used to indicate a language, script, tone, etc. of a text, speech, etc.
      Beethoven's "Symphony No. 5" in C minor is among his most popular.
      His speech was in French, but was simultaneously translated into eight languages.
      When you write in cursive, it's illegible.
      Military letters should be formal in tone, but not stilted.
Hyponyms
Derived terms
Related terms
Translations

Verb

in (third-person singular simple present ins, present participle inning, simple past and past participle inned)

  1. (obsolete, transitive) To enclose.
  2. (obsolete, transitive) To take in; to harvest.

Adverb

in (not comparable)

  1. At or towards the interior of a defined space, such as a building or room.
    Suddenly a strange man walked in.
    Would you like that to take away or eat in?
    He ran to the edge of the swimming pool and dived in.
    • 1879, R J, chapter II, in The Amateur Poacher, London: Smith, Elder, & Co., , OCLC 752825175:
      Orion hit a rabbit once; but though sore wounded it got to the bury, and, struggling in, the arrow caught the side of the hole and was drawn out. Indeed, a nail filed sharp is not of much avail as an arrowhead; you must have it barbed, and that was a little beyond our skill.
  2. Towards the speaker or other reference point.
    They flew in from London last night.
    For six hours the tide flows in, then for another six hours it flows out.
  3. So as to be enclosed or surrounded by something.
    Bring the water to the boil and drop the vegetables in.
  4. After the beginning of something.
    • 2011 October 1, Phil Dawkes, “Sunderland 2-2 West Brom”, in BBC Sport:
      The Black Cats had a mountain to climb after James Morrison's header and Shane Long's neat side-foot finish gave Albion a 2-0 lead five minutes in.
    The show still didn't become interesting 20 minutes in.
  5. (in combination, after a verb) Denotes a gathering of people assembled for the stated activity, sometimes, though not always, suggesting a protest.
    sing-in, pray-in, hug-in; see also be-in, love-in, sit-in, teach-in.
Translations
The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout § Translations.
The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout § Translations.

Noun

in (plural ins)

  1. A position of power or influence, or a way to get it.
    His parents got him an in with the company.
  2. (chiefly in the plural) One who, or that which, is in; especially, one who is in office.
    Antonym: out
    • 1827, Benjamin Chew, A Sketch of the Politics, Relations, and Statistics, of the Western World (page 192)
      This memoir has nothing to do with the question between the ins and the outs; it is intended neither to support nor to assail the administration; it is general in its views upon a general and national subject;
  3. (sports) The state of a batter/batsman who is currently batting; see innings.
  4. A re-entrant angle; a nook or corner.
Antonyms
Translations

Adjective

in (comparative more in, superlative most in)

  1. (not comparable) Located indoors, especially at home or at one's office or place of work.
    Is Mr. Smith in?
  2. (not comparable) Located inside something.
    Little by little I pushed the snake into the basket, until finally all of it was in.
  3. (sports, of the ball or other playing implement) Falling or remaining within the bounds of the playing area.
    If the tennis ball bounces on the line then it's in.
  4. Inserted or fitted into something.
    I've discovered why the TV wasn't working – the plug wasn't in!
  5. Having been collected or received.
    The replies to the questionnaires are now all in.
  6. In fashion; popular.
    Skirts are in this year.
  7. Incoming.
    the in train
  8. (nautical, of the sails of a vessel) Furled or stowed.
  9. Of the tide, at or near its highest level.
    You can't get round the headland when the tide's in.
  10. (law) With privilege or possession; used to denote a holding, possession, or seisin
    in by descent; in by purchase; in of the seisin of her husband
  11. (cricket) Currently batting.
  12. Having familiarity or involvement with somebody.
    • 2010, Joe R. Lansdale, Flaming Zeppelins: The Adventures of Ned the Seal, page 123:
      He took a rifle out of the batch and shot at me. I was lucky he was such a crummy shot.”
      “Why would he do that?”
      “I think he's in with them, Doctor.”
      “Them? You mean Ned and Cody?”
      “All of them. Hickok, the split tail, the whole lot.”
    He is very in with the Joneses.
  13. (informal) Having a favourable position, such as a position of influence or expected gain, in relation to another person.
    I think that bird fancies you. You're in there, mate!
    • 2004, The Streets (lyrics and music), “Could Well Be In”:
      I saw this thing on ITV the other week,
      Said, that if she played with her hair, she's probably keen
      She's playing with her hair, well regularly,
      So I reckon I could well be in.
  14. (of fire or fuel) (Britain, Ireland, Australia, New Zealand) Burning; ablaze.
    • 1888, H.C.O’Neill,Edith A. Barnett, Our Nurses and the Work They Have to Do, page 81:
      Blocks of compressed coal keep the fire in for a long time, but they give out very little heat.
    • 1894, Henry Kingsley, The Recollections of Geoffry Hamlyn - Volume 2, page 183:
      “At all events,” said the Doctor, “the fire’s in, and here’s the camp-oven, too. Somebody will be here soon. I will go in and light my pipe.”
    • 1901, William Francis Barry, The Wizard’s Knot, page 231:
      Was there any person in your own house at Renmore to keep the fire in while you were here?.
    • 2011, Rosemary Sutcliff, The Eagle of the Ninth Chronicles:
      Normally when they camped in the wild they took turns to sit up and keep the fire in while the others slept, .
    • 2019, A.L.Lester, Shadows on the Border:
      He turned and started making up the range to keep the fire in overnight, and heard the front door click and Grant’s motor fire up. Sleep. He needed to sleep.
Translations

Etymology 2

Alternative forms

Noun

in (plural ins or in)

  1. Abbreviation of inch; inches.

References

  1. ^ 1859, Alexander Mansfield, Law Dictionary
  • Andrea Tyler and Vyvyan Evans, "Bounded landmarks", in The Semantics of English Prepositions: Spatial Scenes, Embodied Meaning and Cognition, Cambridge University Press, 2003, 0-521-81430 8

Anagrams


Abinomn

Pronoun

in

  1. he; she

Afrikaans

Etymology

From Dutch in, from Middle Dutch in, from Old Dutch in, from Proto-Germanic *in.

Pronunciation

Adverb

in

  1. in; inside; within

Preposition

in

  1. in
  2. into

Derived terms


Akkadian

Pronunciation

Preposition

in

  1. Alternative form of ina (in, on, at)

Ayomán

Noun

in

  1. water

References

  • Luis Oramas, Materiales para el estudio de los dialectos Ayamán, Gayón, Jirajara, Ajagua (1916)

Baure

Noun

in

  1. water

References

  • Swintha Danielsen, Baure: An Arawak Language of Bolivia

Central Nahuatl

Article

in

  1. the.

Chamorro

Pronunciation

Pronoun

in

  1. we (exclusive)

Usage notes

See also

References

  • Donald M. Topping (1973) Chamorro Reference Grammar, Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.

Chinese

Etymology 1

For pronunciation and definitions of in – see 𪜶 (“they; them; their; theirs; etc.”).
(This character, in, is the Pe̍h-ōe-jī form of 𪜶.)

Etymology 2

From English in.

Pronunciation

Adjective

in

  1. (Hong Kong Cantonese) in fashion; popular
    Antonym: out

Verb

in

  1. (Hong Kong Cantonese) to be in fashion; to be popular
    Antonym: out

Etymology 3

From clipping of English interview.

Pronunciation

Verb

in

  1. (Hong Kong Cantonese) to interview

References


Chuukese

Noun

in

  1. mother

Cimbrian

Etymology 1

From Middle High German in, from Old High German in, from Proto-Germanic *in (in).

Preposition

in

  1. (Luserna, Sette Comuni, + dative) in
Alternative forms
  • inn (Sette Comuni)

Etymology 2

From Middle High German in, from Old High German inan, from Proto-Germanic *inǭ.

Pronoun

in

  1. (Sette Comuni) accusative of èar: him
Alternative forms

See also

Etymology 3

Article

in

  1. (Sette Comuni, Luserna) the; definite article for two declensions:
    1. accusative singular masculine
    2. dative plural
Derived terms
  • von (contraction)

See also

Cimbrian definite articles
Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural
Nominative dar de / di 's / z de / di
Accusative in de / di 's / z de / di
Dative me dar me in

References

  • “in” in Martalar, Umberto Martello; Bellotto, Alfonso (1974) Dizionario della lingua Cimbra dei Sette Communi vicentini, 1st edition, Roana, Italy: Instituto di Cultura Cimbra A. Dal Pozzo
  • Patuzzi, Umberto, ed., (2013) Luserna / Lusérn: Le nostre parole / Ünsarne börtar / Unsere Wörter , Luserna, Italy: Comitato unitario delle isole linguistiche storiche germaniche in Italia / Einheitskomitee der historischen deutschen Sprachinseln in Italien

Classical Nahuatl

Article

in

  1. the

Pronoun

in, īn

  1. (demonstrative) this; these

Related terms

Derived terms

References

  • Michel Launey; Christopher Mackay (2011) An Introduction to Classical Nahuatl, Amazon Kindle: Cambridge University Press, pages Loc 1408

Danish

Adjective

in (neuter in, plural and definite singular attributive in)

  1. (colloquial) fashionable, in

Antonyms


Dutch

Etymology

From Middle Dutch in, from Old Dutch in, from Proto-Germanic *in.

Pronunciation

Adverb

in

  1. in, inside
  2. (postpositional) into
    De jongen rende het huis in.
    The boy ran into the house.

Preposition

in

  1. in (expressing containment)
    De geest in de fles
    the genie in the bottle

Inflection

Synonyms

Antonyms

Descendants

  • Afrikaans: in
  • Jersey Dutch: än, in

Derived terms

Adjective

in (used only predicatively, not comparable)

  1. in style

Verb

in

  1. first-person singular present indicative of innen
  2. imperative of innen

Emilian

Etymology

From Latin inde (thence). Cognate with Catalan en, French en, Italian ne.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /in/
  • Hyphenation: in

Pronoun

in (adverbial)

  1. (genitive case) of it, of them
    Vô-t di pām? A t’in dāg dû.
    Do you want some apples? I will give you two (of them).
  2. (genitive case) about it, about them
    A t’in avîva descòurs ajêr.
    I talked to you about it yesterday.
  3. (ablative case) from here
    A sòun stùf, a m’in vāg.
    I am tired, I am leaving (from here).

Alternative forms

  • Becomes n- before a vowel (proclitic).
    A-g n-ò dimándi.I have a lot (of them).
  • Becomes -en when acting as an enclitic (after a consonant).
    Mānjen un pōk!Eat some of it! (imperative, singular)
  • Becomes -n when acting as an enclitic (after a vowel).
    Manjēn un pōk!Eat some of it! (imperative, plural )

Finnish

Etymology

Borrowed from English in.

Pronunciation

Adjective

in

  1. (colloquial) in, popular (in fashion)
    • 1985, Jukka Karjalainen (lyrics and music), “Mikä mahtaa olla in?”, in Doris, performed by J. Karjalainen ja mustat lasit:
      Tee niin, tee näin, olet in, in, in,
      Olet keskipiste koko kaupungin
      Do this, do that, you will be in, in, in,
      You will be the centre of the whole city
    • 1991, Juha Vainio (lyrics), “Oot maalainen”, in Viiskymppisen viisut, performed by Juha Vainio:
      Kuiskaan silloin hiljaa: «mie viljele en viljaa;
      oon vihdoin in»!
      So I quietly whisper: "I don't grow no crops;
      I'm finally in"!

Antonyms

Anagrams


Friulian

Etymology

From Latin in.

Preposition

in

  1. in

German

Pronunciation

Etymology 1

From Old High German in, from Proto-Germanic *in.

Preposition

in

  1. (with dative) in, inside, within, at (inside a building)
    Es ist in dem Haus.It is in the house.
    Ich habe die Schlüssel im (in dem) Kühlschrank gefunden.I found the keys in the refrigerator.
    Unsere Kinder sind in der Schule.Our kids are at school.
    Er ist in einem Café.He is at a coffee shop.
    Letzte Nacht waren sie im (in dem) Club.They were at the club last night.
  2. (with dative) in (pertaining to)
    in diesem Sinnein this/that sense
  3. (with dative) in, at, by (at the end of or during a period of time)
    Er schloss sein Studium im Alter von vierzehn.He completed his studies at/by the age of fourteen.
    im Alterin old age
    im Mittelalterduring the middle ages
    in den 1960er Jahrenin the 1960s
  4. (with accusative) into, to (going inside (of))
    Er geht ins Haus.He goes into the house.
    Wir gehen in die Schweiz.We are going to Switzerland.
    Wir treten in ein neues Zeitalter ein.We are coming into a new age.
Usage notes

The preposition in is used with the accusative case if the verb shows movement from one place to another, whereas it is used with the dative case if the verb shows location.

Derived terms

Etymology 2

Contraction

in

  1. (dated) Contraction of in den.

Etymology 3

Borrowed from English in.

Adjective

in (indeclinable, predicative only)

  1. in, popular (in fashion)
Declension

Indeclinable, predicative-only.

Further reading


Gothic

Romanization

in

  1. Romanization of 𐌹𐌽

Interlingua

Preposition

in

  1. in

Irish

Preposition

in (plus dative, triggers eclipsis)

  1. Alternative form of i

Usage notes

This variant of i is used before vowel-initial words, before bhur (your pl), before dhá (two), before titles of books, films, and the like, and before foreign words that resist mutation.

In older texts, the n is spelled together with a vowel-initial word (e.g. i n-aice le instead of modern in aice le (beside) and i nÉirinn or i n-Éirinn instead of modern in Éirinn (in Ireland). Also in older texts, in bhur may be spelled i nbhur.


Istriot

Etymology

From Latin in.

Preposition

in

  1. in; on
    • 1877, Antonio Ive, Canti popolari istriani: raccolti a Rovigno, volume 5, Ermanno Loescher, page 99:
      Cume li va puleîto in alto mare!
      How they row well on the high seas!

Italian

Etymology

From Latin in.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ˈin/
  • Rhymes: -in
  • Hyphenation: ìn

Preposition

in

  1. in
    Ho qualcosa in tasca.I have something in my pocket.
    Partirò in primavera.I will be leaving in spring.
    Vado in quinta elementare.I'm in fifth grade.
  2. to
    Sono andato in panetteria.I went to the bakery.
  3. into
  4. by
    Vado a scuola in autobus.I go to school by bus.
  5. on
    Ho messo un cappello in testa.I put a hat on my head.
    Metti il pane in tavola.Put the bread on the table.
  6. Marker of way or manner.
    riso in biancoplain rice (literally, “rice in white”)
    camminare in punta di piedito walk on the tips of one's toes

Usage notes

  • When followed by the definite article, in is combined with the article to produce the following combined forms:
in + article Combined form
in + il nel
in + lo nello
in + l' nell'
in + i nei
in + gli negli
in + la nella
in + le nelle

Anagrams


Japanese

Romanization

in

  1. Rōmaji transcription of いん

Ladin

Preposition

in

  1. in

Latin

Alternative forms

Etymology

From earlier en, from Proto-Italic *en, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁én (in). Cognate with English in.

Pronunciation

Preposition

in (+ ablative), in (+ accusative)

  1. (+ ablative) in, at, on, upon, from (space)
    • 29 bc. Vergil. Georgics, III
      omne adeo genvs in terris hominvmqve ferarvmqve
      et genvs æqvorevm pecvdes pictæqve volvcres
      in fvrias ignemqve rvvnt
      So far does every species on earth of man and beast,
      whether the aquatic species, livestock, or painted-winged,
      collapse into the frenzies and the fire.
    • Seneca
      venenum in auro bibitur
      Poison is drunk from a gold cup.
  2. (+ ablative) under, within, in
    • 70 BCE – 19 BCE, Virgil, Eclogues 1.4:
      lentus in umbrā
      sluggish under the shade
  3. (+ ablative) during, within, while in (time)
  4. (+ accusative) into, to
    • 29 bc. Vergil. Georgics, III
      omne adeo genvs in terris hominvmqve ferarvmqve
      et genvs æqvorevm pecvdes pictæqve volvcres
      in fvrias ignemqve rvvnt
      So far does every species on earth of man and beast,
      whether the aquatic species, livestock, or painted-winged,
      collapse into the frenzies and the fire.
    • 1774, Finnur Jónsson, Historia Ecclesiastica Islandiæ 1:
      De introductione religionis Christianæ in Islandiam.
      On the introduction of Christianity to Iceland.
  5. (+ accusative) toward, towards, against, at
    Gallī in Rōmānōs incurrunt.The Gauls are rushing against the Romans.
  6. (+ accusative) until, for
  7. (+ accusative) about
  8. (+ accusative) according to
    • Caesar, de Bello Gallico VII, 19:
      Generatimque distributi in civitates
      and being distributed in tribes according to their respective nations

Antonyms

Derived terms

Descendants

  • Balkan Romance:
    • Aromanian: ãn
    • Istro-Romanian: ăn
    • Megleno-Romanian: ăn
    • Romanian: în
  • Dalmatian:
  • Italo-Romance:
    • Italian: in
    • Sicilian: n
  • Padanian:
    • Friulian: in
    • Ligurian: in
    • Piedmontese: ën
    • Romansch: en
  • Northern Gallo-Romance:
    • Franco-Provençal: en
    • French: en
  • Southern Gallo-Romance:
    • Catalan: en
    • Occitan: en
  • Ibero-Romance:
    • Mozarabic: אן('n)
    • Portuguese: em
    • Spanish: en
  • Insular Romance:
    • Sardinian: in

Quotations


Ligurian

Etymology 1

From Latin in.

Pronunciation

Preposition

in

  1. in
in + article Combined form
in + o ne-o
in + a ne-a
in + i ne-i
in + e ne-e
Synonyms

Etymology 2

With iotacism, from un (a, an, indefinite article).

Pronunciation

Article

in

  1. a, an (male)
Usage notes
  • This form is found:
    • in sentence-initial position, or after a punctuation mark
    • after words ending in /ŋ/

Lombard

Alternative forms

  • ind (followed by article)
  • en, èn (Eastern orthographies)

Etymology

From Latin in.

Pronunciation

Preposition

in

  1. in

Usage notes

  • When followed by a definite or indefinite article, it's replaced by ind.

Louisiana Creole French

Pronunciation

Article

in

  1. Alternative form of un

Mapudungun

Etymology

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation

Verb

in (Raguileo spelling)

  1. To eat.
  2. first-person singular realis form of in

See also

References

  • Wixaleyiñ: Mapucezugun-wigkazugun pici hemvlcijka (Wixaleyiñ: Small Mapudungun-Spanish dictionary), Beretta, Marta; Cañumil, Dario; Cañumil, Tulio, 2008.

Marshallese

Pronunciation

Etymology 1

Preposition

in

  1. to

Etymology 2

Noun

in

  1. grass skirt
Synonyms

Etymology 3

From Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *(i-)ni, from Proto-Austronesian *(i-)ni.

Pronoun

in

  1. this (thing close to us both)
  2. demonstrative, first person inclusive singular

Etymology 4

Alternative forms

Preposition

in

  1. of
  2. from
  3. for

References


Middle Dutch

Etymology 1

From Old Dutch in, from Proto-Germanic *in.

Preposition

in

  1. in, inside, within
  2. into
  3. within (a time period)
  4. in (a condition)
Descendants
  • Dutch: in
    • Afrikaans: in
  • Limburgish: in

Etymology 2

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Contraction

in

  1. Contraction of ic ne.

Further reading

  • in”, in Vroegmiddelnederlands Woordenboek, 2000
  • Verwijs, E.; Verdam, J. (1885–1929), “in (VI)”, in Middelnederlandsch Woordenboek, The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, →ISBN, page VI

Middle English

Etymology 1

From Old English inn.

Alternative forms

Pronunciation

Noun

in (plural innes)

  1. Any kind of accommodation; particularly:
    1. A holiday home or guesthouse; a house set up as accommodation.
    2. An inn or hostel; a building with multiple rooms to let.
    3. A camp used by an army; barracks.
  2. A home or house; habitation or housing one lives in.
  3. A dormitory; housing for students.
Descendants
References

Etymology 2

From Old English in, from Proto-Germanic *in.

Alternative forms

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /in/, /iː/, /i/, /ən/

Preposition

in

  1. in; with the following special senses:
    1. in, inside; encircled or confined by, with the following special senses:
      1. inside, within (a text or document)
      2. inside, within (one's mind)
      3. inside, in, indoors of.
      4. amongst, in a crowd of.
    2. wearing, having on, clad in
    3. in a quality or mode: with the following special senses:
      1. affected by, under the influence of.
      2. held by someone, in someone's grasp
      3. owned by someone, in someone's control
    4. inside, at or on a location or place.
    5. secured with; bound with
    6. in the midst of, while, currently doing
    7. in (pieces or portions), into.
    8. about; of, on the matter of.
  2. in the form, way, or manner of.
  3. on, above, on top of.
  4. facing at, in the direction of.
  5. Being one of a set or group.
  6. Being owned by; in one's possession.
  7. due to, as, for the reason that.
  8. versus; in conflict with; fighting with.
  9. using, utilising, with the means of.
  10. (rare) with, in the company of.
Usage notes

in is usually postpositive in Middle English. For example, the previous sentence would be in is after þe noun lome Middel Englisch in.

Related terms
Descendants
References

Etymology 3

From Old English inne, from Proto-Germanic *inna.

Alternative forms

Pronunciation

Adverb

in

  1. in; with the following special senses:
    1. in, inside; encircled or confined by.
    2. inside, in, in the centre of.
    3. in a quality or mode.
  2. in towards, in the direction of.
  3. on, on top of; above
  4. using, utilising, with the means of.
Descendants
  • English: in
  • Scots: in
References

Etymology 4

Pronoun

in

  1. Alternative form of hine

Min Nan

For pronunciation and definitions of in – see 𪜶 (“they; them; their; theirs; etc.”).
(This character, in, is the Pe̍h-ōe-jī form of 𪜶.)

Mohegan-Pequot

Noun

in

  1. man (adult male)

References

  • A Vocabulary of Mohegan-Pequot (John D. Prince, Frank G. Speck)

Northern Sami

Pronunciation

Verb

in

  1. first-person singular present of ii

Norwegian Bokmål

Alternative forms

  • inn (adjective)

Etymology

From English in.

Adjective

in (singular and plural in)

  1. popular

References

Anagrams


Norwegian Nynorsk

Alternative forms

  • inn (adjective)

Etymology

From English in.

Adjective

in (singular and plural in)

  1. popular

References

Anagrams


Old English

Etymology 1

From Proto-Germanic *in.

Pronunciation

Preposition

in (Anglian)

  1. in
Usage notes

In the West Saxon dialect, this word was replaced by on during the separate prehistory of Old English. However, it was still used as a prefix to form many words such as ingang (entrance), inġewinn (civil war), inġeþanc (inner thoughts), inlendisċ (native), intinga (cause), and inweorc (indoor work), and it was still implied by derived adverbs such as inne (inside), innan (from the inside), and inn (“in,” adverb).

Descendants
  • Middle English: in
    • English: in
    • Scots: in

Etymology 2

From Proto-Germanic *inn.

Adverb

in

  1. Alternative form of inn

Old High German

Etymology

From Proto-Germanic *in.

Preposition

in

  1. in

Descendants

  • Middle High German: in
    • Bavarian: i
      Cimbrian: inn, in (preposition)
    • Central Franconian: en, ön, on
    • German: in
    • Luxembourgish: an
    • Rhine Franconian: in, en
      • Pennsylvania German: in
    • Yiddish: אין(in)

Old Irish

Etymology 1

From Proto-Celtic *sindos (this), from Proto-Indo-European *sḗm (one) or *só (this); weak doublet of sin (this).

Article

in

  1. the (masculine singular nominative/accusative; feminine singular accusative; masculine/feminine/neuter dual nominative/accusative/genitive)
    • c. 800, Würzburg Glosses on the Pauline Epistles, published in Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus (reprinted 1987, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies), edited and with translations by Whitley Stokes and John Strachan, vol. I, pp. 499–712, Wb. 13d7
      Beóigidir in spirut in corp in ḟect so.
      "The spirit now quickens the body."
  2. Alternative spelling of ind
    • c. 800, Würzburg Glosses on the Pauline Epistles, published in Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus (reprinted 1987, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies), edited and with translations by Whitley Stokes and John Strachan, vol. I, pp. 499–712, Wb. 13d7
      Beóigidir in spirut in corp in ḟect so.
      "The spirit now quickens the body."
Usage notes
  • Triggers nasalization of the following noun in the masculine and feminine singular accusative.
  • Triggers lenition of the following noun as an alternative spelling of ind.
Declension
Case Singular Dual Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative in
int (before vowels)
ind
int (before )
a in in in ind inna
Accusative in inna
Genitive ind
int (before )
inna ind
int (before )
in
Dative dond; dont (before )
cossind; cossint (before )
etc.
don dib
cossin dib
etc.
donaib
cosnaib
etc.
Note: The dative is used only after a preposition, which forms a contraction with the definite article, e.g. dond (“to the”), cossind (“with the”), etc.
Synonyms
  • int (masculine singular nominative, used before a vowel)
Derived terms
Descendants
  • Irish: an
  • Scottish Gaelic: an
  • Manx: yn

Etymology 2

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Particle

in (triggers eclipsis)

  1. interrogative particle forming yes-no questions
Derived terms

Verb

in (triggers eclipsis)

  1. third-person singular present indicative interrogative of is: is...?

Etymology 3

Preposition

in

  1. Alternative form of i (in) (often before cach, cech (each, every) and for (your pl))

Etymology 4

Probably originally the masculine/neuter dative singular of the definite article (see Etymology 1); compare Middle Welsh and Welsh yn.

Particle

in

  1. Used with the masculine/neuter dative singular of an adjective to form the corresponding adverb: -ly
    • c. 800–825, Diarmait, Milan Glosses on the Psalms, published in Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus (reprinted 1987, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies), edited and with translations by Whitley Stokes and John Strachan, vol. I, pp. 7–483, Ml. 30a3
      Amal nád n-airigther ⁊ nád fintar a ndu·gníther hi suidi, sic ba in ḟortgidiu ⁊ ba hi temul du·gníth Saul cona muntair intleda ⁊ erelca fri Dauid.
      As what is done in this is not perceived and discovered, so it was covertly and it was in darkness that Saul with his people was making snares and ambushes against David.

References

  1. ^ Thurneysen, Rudolf (1940, reprinted 2003)D. A. Binchy and Osborn Bergin, transl., A Grammar of Old Irish, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, →ISBN, § 379, pages 238–39

Old Norse

Article

in

  1. inflection of inn:
    1. feminine nominative singular
    2. neuter nominative/accusative plural

Old Saxon

Etymology

From Proto-Germanic *in.

Preposition

in

  1. in

Pennsylvania German

Preposition

in

  1. in

Portuguese

Etymology 1

Borrowed from Latin in (in). Doublet of em.

Preposition

in

  1. found in the given reference
Related terms

Etymology 2

Unadapted borrowing from English in.

Adjective

in (invariable)

  1. in fashion
    Synonym: na moda

Romagnol

Etymology

From Latin in (in).

Pronunciation

  • (Central Romagnol):
      • (San Zaccaria): IPA(key):
      • (San Pietro in Vincoli): IPA(key):

Preposition

in

  1. in, into
  2. by
    A vég a Ravèna in bicicléta.
    I go to Ravenna by bike.

References

Masotti, Adelmo (1999) Vocabolario Romagnolo Italiano (in Italian), Zanichelli, page 289


Romanian

Etymology

From Latin līnum (flax).

Pronunciation

Noun

in n (plural inuri)

  1. flax

Declension

Related terms


Romansch

Alternative forms

  • egn (Sutsilvan, Surmiran)
  • ün (Puter, Vallader)

Etymology

From Latin ūnus.

Article

in m (feminine ina)

  1. (Rumantsch Grischun, Sursilvan) a, an

Number

in m (feminine ina)

  1. (Rumantsch Grischun, Sursilvan) one

Sardinian

Etymology

From Latin in.

Pronunciation

Preposition

in

  1. in, into

Sassarese

Alternative forms

  • i', i (apocopic)

Etymology

From Latin in, from earlier en, from Proto-Italic *en, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁én (in).

Pronunciation

Preposition

in

  1. in
    Soggu in sigunda erementariI'm in second grade
    Canti seddi in crassi tóia?How many are you in your class?
    Paràuri ischritti in rùiuWords written in red
    Fabeddàbani in sassaresuThey were speaking (in) Sassarese
    • 1866, Luigi Luciano Bonaparte, “Cap. Ⅲ [Chapter 3]”, in Il Vangelo di S. Matteo volgarizzato in dialetto sardo sassarese, London, page 7:
      In chissi dì poi vinisi Giuanni Battilta pridigghendi in lu diseltu di la Giudea
      In those days, then came John the Baptist, preaching in the desert of Judaea
    • 1989, Giovanni Maria Cherchi, “Puisia ”, in La poesia di l'althri, Sassari: Arnoldo Mondadori Editore, page 19:
      E s’ammenta di nommi immintigaddi, ¶ un basgiu dazi a facci risurani, ¶ chi più no li vidia che in sonni fei
      And she remembers forgotten names, gives a kiss to smiling faces she would only see again in nightmares
      (literally, “And she remembers herself of forgotten names, a kiss gives to laughing faces, which she didn't see anymore except in bad dreams”)

References

  • Rubattu, Antoninu (2006) Dizionario universale della lingua di Sardegna, 2nd edition, Sassari: Edes

Saterland Frisian

Etymology

From Old Frisian in, from Proto-West Germanic *in. Cognates include West Frisian yn and German in.

Pronunciation

Preposition

in (neuter or distal adverb deerin, proximal adverb hierin, interrogative adverb wierin)

  1. in, inside
  2. in, into

Related terms

References

  • Marron C. Fort (2015), “in”, in Saterfriesisches Wörterbuch mit einer phonologischen und grammatischen Übersicht, Buske, →ISBN

Serbo-Croatian

Etymology

From Proto-Slavic *jьnъ.

Adjective

in (Cyrillic spelling ин)

  1. (rare, archaic) other

Declension

Related terms

Synonyms

References

Budmani, Pero (1887-1891), "Rječnik hrvatskoga ili srpskoga jezika" Volume III, p. 827


Slovene

Etymology

From Proto-Slavic *i.

Pronunciation

Conjunction

in

  1. and

Synonyms

  • i (dialectal)

Sumerian

Romanization

in

  1. Romanization of 𒅔 (in)

Swedish

Pronunciation

Adverb

in

  1. into, to in
    Antonym: ut (to out)
    Han gick inHe walked in ("to in")
    Han gick inneHe was walking around inside (for comparison)
    De går inThey're walking in ("to in")
    Han gick in i rummetHe walked into the room
    Han är inne i rummetHe is in the room

See also

  • inne (in as a location, inside)
  • inåt (inwards)

Anagrams


Turkish

Etymology 1

From Ottoman Turkish این(in), from Proto-Turkic *in (lair, burrow). Cognate with Kazakh ін (ın).

Noun

in (definite accusative ini, plural inler)

  1. lair, den, burrow
  2. cave
Declension
Inflection
Nominative in
Definite accusative ini
Singular Plural
Nominative in inler
Definite accusative ini inleri
Dative ine inlere
Locative inde inlerde
Ablative inden inlerden
Genitive inin inlerin
Possessive forms
Nominative
Singular Plural
1st singular inim inlerim
2nd singular inin inlerin
3rd singular ini inleri
1st plural inimiz inlerimiz
2nd plural ininiz inleriniz
3rd plural inleri inleri
Definite accusative
Singular Plural
1st singular inimi inlerimi
2nd singular inini inlerini
3rd singular inini inlerini
1st plural inimizi inlerimizi
2nd plural ininizi inlerinizi
3rd plural inlerini inlerini
Dative
Singular Plural
1st singular inime inlerime
2nd singular inine inlerine
3rd singular inine inlerine
1st plural inimize inlerimize
2nd plural ininize inlerinize
3rd plural inlerine inlerine
Locative
Singular Plural
1st singular inimde inlerimde
2nd singular ininde inlerinde
3rd singular ininde inlerinde
1st plural inimizde inlerimizde
2nd plural ininizde inlerinizde
3rd plural inlerinde inlerinde
Ablative
Singular Plural
1st singular inimden inlerimden
2nd singular ininden inlerinden
3rd singular ininden inlerinden
1st plural inimizden inlerimizden
2nd plural ininizden inlerinizden
3rd plural inlerinden inlerinden
Genitive
Singular Plural
1st singular inimin inlerimin
2nd singular ininin inlerinin
3rd singular ininin inlerinin
1st plural inimizin inlerimizin
2nd plural ininizin inlerinizin
3rd plural inlerinin inlerinin

References

Etymology 2

Verb

in

  1. second-person singular imperative of inmek

Vietnamese

Pronunciation

Etymology 1

Non-Sino-Vietnamese reading of Chinese (to print, SV: ấn).

Verb

in

  1. to print
Derived terms

Etymology 2

Adjective

in

  1. (only in compounds) perfectly fitted
Derived terms
Derived terms

Anagrams


Volapük

Preposition

in

  1. in

Welsh

Alternative forms

Pronunciation

Pronoun

in

  1. (literary) first-person plural of i

West Frisian

Etymology

Shortened from ien (one).

Pronunciation

Determiner

in

  1. a, an; indefinite article

Further reading

  • in (I)”, in Wurdboek fan de Fryske taal (in Dutch), 2011

Yola

Preposition

in

  1. Alternative form of i (in)
    • 1867, “A YOLA ZONG”, in SONGS, ETC. IN THE DIALECT OF FORTH AND BARGY, number 3:
      At by mizluck was ee-pit t'drive in.
      Who by misluck was placed to drive in.

References

  • Jacob Poole (1867), William Barnes, editor, A Glossary, With some Pieces of Verse, of the old Dialect of the English Colony in the Baronies of Forth and Bargy, County of Wexford, Ireland, London: J. Russell Smith, page 84

Yoruba

Etymology 1

Pronunciation

Pronoun

in

  1. him, her, it (third-person singular non-honorific object pronoun following a monosyllabic verb with a high-tone /ĩ/)

Pronoun

ín

  1. him, her, it (third-person singular non-honorific object pronoun following a monosyllabic verb with a low- or mid-tone /ĩ/)
See also

Etymology 2

Pronunciation

Pronoun

ìn

  1. (Ekiti) you, Alternative form of ((second-person plural or honorific personal pronoun))

Zou

In khet.

Etymology

From Proto-Kuki-Chin *ʔim, from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *kim (house, womb).

Pronunciation

Noun

ín

  1. house

Derived terms

References

  • Lukram Himmat Singh (2013) A Descriptive Grammar of Zou, Canchipur: Manipur University, page 41
  • Philip Thanglienmang (2014), “Zou Tonology”, in Indian Linguistics, volume 75, issue 1-2, ISSN 0378-0759