open

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English

English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

Pronunciation

Etymology 1

From Middle English open, from Old English open (open), from Proto-West Germanic *opan, from Proto-Germanic *upanaz (open), from Proto-Indo-European *upo (up from under, over). Cognate with Scots apen (open), Saterland Frisian eepen (open), West Frisian iepen (open), Dutch open (open), Low German open, apen (open), German offen (open), Danish åben (open), Swedish öppen (open), Norwegian Bokmål åpen (open), Norwegian Nynorsk open (open), Icelandic opinn (open). Compare also Latin supinus (on one's back, supine), Albanian hap (to open). Related to up.

Adjective

A sign indicating that a shop is open

open (comparative more open, superlative most open)

  1. (usually not comparable) Not closed.
    1. Able to be accessed.
    2. Able to have something pass through or along it.
      Turn left after the second open door.
    3. (of a body part) not covered, showing what is inside
      It was as if his body had gone to sleep standing up and with his eyes open.
  2. Not physically drawn together, closed, folded or contracted; extended.
    an open hand; an open flower
  3. (not comparable) Actively conducting or prepared to conduct business.
    Banks are not open on bank holidays.
    • 2013 July 20, “The attack of the MOOCs”, in The Economist, volume 408, number 8845:
      Since the launch early last year of  two Silicon Valley start-ups offering free education through MOOCs, massive open online courses, the ivory towers of academia have been shaken to their foundations. University brands built in some cases over centuries have been forced to contemplate the possibility that information technology will rapidly make their existing business model obsolete.
  4. (comparable) Receptive.
    I am open to new ideas.
    • 1611, The Holy Bible,  (King James Version), London: Robert Barker, , OCLC 964384981, Acts 19:38:
      Wherefore if Demetrius have a matter against any man, the law is open and there are deputies.
    • c. 1596–1599, William Shakespeare, “The Second Part of Henry the Fourth, ”, in Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies  (First Folio), London: Isaac Iaggard, and Ed Blount, published 1623, OCLC 606515358, :
      The service that I truly did his life, / Hath left me open to all injuries.
    • 2005, Pamela J. Carter, ‎Susan Lewsen, Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants (page 277)
      When the top sheet, blanket, and bedspread of a closed bed are turned back, or fanfolded, the closed bed becomes an open bed, or a bed ready to receive a patient or resident.
    • 2021 April 2, Ciara Nugent, “Can Public Transit Survive the Pandemic? London's New Transport Commissioner Wants You to Believe It Can”, in Time:
      A U.K. survey found attitudes toward public transit had been set back by two decades, with only 43% of drivers open to using their car less, even if public transport improves.
  5. (not comparable) Public
    He published an open letter to the governor on a full page of the New York Times.
  6. (not comparable) Candid, ingenuous, not subtle in character.
    The man is an open book.
  7. (now regional) Mild (of the weather); free from frost or snow.
    • c. 1794, Jane Austen, Lady Susan:
      He desires me to tell you that the present open weather induces him to accept Mr Vernon's invitation to prolong his stay in Sussex that they may have some hunting together.
  8. (mathematics, logic, of a formula) Having a free variable.
  9. (mathematics, topology, of a set) Which is part of a predefined collection of subsets of , that defines a topological space on .
  10. (graph theory, of a walk) Whose first and last vertices are different.
  11. (computing, not comparable, of a file, document, etc.) In current use; mapped to part of memory.
    I couldn't save my changes because another user had the same file open.
  12. (engineering, gas and liquid flow, of valve or damper) To be in a position allowing fluid to flow.
  13. (electricity, of a switch or circuit breaker) To be in a position preventing electricity from flowing.
  14. (business) Not fulfilled.
    I've got open orders for as many containers of red durum as you can get me.
  15. Not settled or adjusted; not decided or determined; not closed or withdrawn from consideration.
    an open question
    to keep an offer or opportunity open
    your account will remain open until we receive final settlement.
  16. (music, stringed instruments) Of a note, played without pressing the string against the fingerboard.
  17. (music) Of a note, played without closing any finger-hole, key or valve.
  18. Not of a quality to prevent communication, as by closing waterways, blocking roads, etc.; hence, not frosty or inclement; mild; used of the weather or the climate.
    an open winter
  19. (law, of correspondence) Written or sent with the intention that it may made public or referred to at any trial, rather than by way of confidential private negotiation for a settlement.
    You will observe that this is an open letter and we reserve the right to mention it to the judge should the matter come to trial.
  20. (phonetics) Uttered with a relatively wide opening of the articulating organs; said of vowels.
    • 1959, Anthony Burgess, Beds in the East (The Malayan Trilogy), published 1972, page 421:
      "Supposing somebody sees you, with all those flowers too? Supposing somebody writes him a letter? Ooooh!" (a pure round open Tamil O.)
  21. (phonetics) Uttered, as a consonant, with the oral passage simply narrowed without closure.
  22. (phonetics, of a syllable) That ends in a vowel; not having a coda.
  23. (computing, education) Made public, usable with a free licence and without proprietary components.
  24. (medicine) Resulting from an incision, puncture or any other process by which the skin no longer protects an internal part of the body.
  25. (computing, used before "code") Source code of a computer program that is not within the text of a macro being generated.
  26. (of a multi-word compound) Having component words separated by spaces, as opposed to being joined together or hyphenated; for example, time slot as opposed to timeslot or time-slot.
Synonyms
Antonyms
Hyponyms
Hyponyms of open (adjective)
Derived terms
Terms derived from open (adjective)
Translations
The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout § Translations.

Etymology 2

From Middle English openen, from Old English openian (to open), from Proto-Germanic *upanōną (to raise; lift; open), from Proto-Germanic *upanaz (open, adjective). Cognate with Saterland Frisian eepenje (to open), West Frisian iepenje (to open), Dutch openen (to open), German öffnen (to open), Danish åbne (to open), Swedish öppna (to open), Norwegian Bokmål åpne (to open), Norwegian Nynorsk and Icelandic opna (to open). Related to English up.

Verb

open (third-person singular simple present opens, present participle opening, simple past and past participle opened)

  1. (transitive) To make something accessible or allow for passage by moving from a shut position.
    • 1913, Joseph C. Lincoln, chapter 7, in Mr. Pratt's Patients:
      I made a speaking trumpet of my hands and commenced to whoop “Ahoy!” and “Hello!” at the top of my lungs. The Colonel woke up, and, after asking what in brimstone was the matter, opened his mouth and roared “Hi!” and “Hello!” like the bull of Bashan.
    • 1963, Margery Allingham, chapter 20, in The China Governess:
      ‘No. I only opened the door a foot and put my head in. The street lamps shine into that room. I could see him. He was all right. Sleeping like a great grampus. Poor, poor chap.’
    Turn the doorknob to open the door.
  2. (transitive) To make (an open space, etc.) by clearing away an obstacle or obstacles, in order to allow for passage, access, or visibility.
    He opened a path through the undergrowth.
  3. (transitive, intransitive, engineering, gas and liquid flow, of valve or damper) To move to a position allowing fluid to flow.
  4. (transitive, intransitive, electricity, of a switch, fuse or circuit breaker) To move to a position preventing electricity from flowing.
  5. (Manglish, Philippines) To turn on; to switch on.
    Open your webcam.Turn on your webcam.
    Open the fan please.Please switch on the fan.
    Open the lights please.Please turn on the lights.
  6. (transitive) To bring up, broach.
    I don't want to open that subject.
  7. (transitive) To enter upon, begin.
    to open a discussion
    to open fire upon an enemy
    to open trade, or correspondence
    to open a case in court, or a meeting
  8. (transitive) To spread; to expand into an open or loose position.
    to open a closed fist
    to open matted cotton by separating the fibres
    to open a map, book, or scroll
  9. (transitive) To make accessible to customers or clients.
    I will open the shop an hour early tomorrow.
    • 1934, White Unto Harvest in China: A Survey of the Lutheran United Mission, the China Mission of the N.L.C.A., 1890-1934, OCLC 23011557, page 76:
      Suiping was opened as a main station in 1912 when Rev. H. M. Nesse arrived to take charge of the mission work.
  10. (transitive) To start (a campaign).
    Vermont will open elk hunting season next week.
  11. (intransitive) To become open.
    • 1913, Joseph C. Lincoln, chapter 1, in Mr. Pratt's Patients:
      I stumbled along through the young pines and huckleberry bushes. Pretty soon I struck into a sort of path that, I cal'lated, might lead to the road I was hunting for. It twisted and turned, and, the first thing I knew, made a sudden bend around a bunch of bayberry scrub and opened out into a big clear space like a lawn.
    The door opened all by itself.
  12. (intransitive) To begin conducting business.
    The shop opens at 9:00.
  13. (intransitive, cricket) To begin a side's innings as one of the first two batsmen.
  14. (intransitive, poker) To bet before any other player has in a particular betting round in a game of poker.
    After the first two players fold, Julie opens for $5.
  15. (transitive, intransitive, poker) To reveal one's hand.
    Jeff opens his hand revealing a straight flush.
  16. (computing, transitive, intransitive, of a file, document, etc.) To load into memory for viewing or editing.
  17. (transitive, nursing) To make (a bed) ready for a patient by folding back the bedcovers.
    • 2013, Susan C. deWit, ‎Patricia A. Williams, Fundamental Concepts and Skills for Nursing (page 318)
      Follow agency policy, or open the bed by folding the top linens back.
  18. (obsolete) To disclose; to reveal; to interpret; to explain.
Usage notes
  • Due to the near-opposite meanings relating to fluid flow and electrical components, these usages are deprecated in safety-critical instructions, with the words to on or to off preferred, so instead of Open valve A; open switch B" use Turn valve A to ON; turn switch B to OFF.
Synonyms
Hyponyms
  • (to make accessible): crack (open a bit)
Antonyms
Derived terms
Translations
The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout § Translations.

Etymology 3

From Middle English open (an aperture or opening), from the verb (see Etymology 2 above). In the sports sense, however, a shortening of “open competition”.

Noun

open (plural opens)

  1. (with the) Open or unobstructed space; an exposed location.
    I can't believe you left the lawnmower out in the open when you knew it was going to rain this afternoon!
    Wary of hunters, the fleeing deer kept well out of the open, dodging instead from thicket to thicket.
  2. (with the) Public knowledge or scrutiny; full view.
    We have got to bring this company's corrupt business practices into the open.
  3. (electronics) A defect in an electrical circuit preventing current from flowing.
    The electrician found the open in the circuit after a few minutes of testing.
  4. A sports event in which anybody can compete.
  5. The act of something being opened, such as an e-mail message.
    • 2016, Ian Dodson, The Art of Digital Marketing (page 144)
      The total number of opens from original, or unique, subscribers.
Derived terms
Translations

Anagrams


Afrikaans

Etymology

From Dutch openen, from Middle Dutch ōpenen, from Old Dutch opanon, from Proto-Germanic *upanōną.

Pronunciation

Verb

open (present open, present participle openende, past participle geopen)

  1. (transitive) to open

Related terms


Catalan

Etymology

From English open.

Noun

open m (plural open or òpens)

  1. (sports) open

Dutch

Pronunciation

Etymology 1

From Middle Dutch ōpen, from Old Dutch opan, from Proto-Germanic *upanaz.

Adjective

open (comparative opener, superlative openst)

  1. open, not closed
    Antonyms: gesloten, dicht, toe
  2. open for business
    Antonyms: gesloten, dicht
  3. open, receptive
    Antonym: gesloten
Inflection
Inflection of open
uninflected open
inflected open
comparative opener
positive comparative superlative
predicative/adverbial open opener het openst
het openste
indefinite m./f. sing. open opener openste
n. sing. open opener openste
plural open opener openste
definite open opener openste
partitive opens openers
Antonyms
Derived terms
Descendants
  • Afrikaans: oop
  • Negerhollands: open, hopo
    • Virgin Islands Creole: hopo
  • ? Aukan: obo

Etymology 2

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Verb

open

  1. first-person singular present indicative of openen
  2. imperative of openen

Anagrams


Finnish

Noun

open

  1. genitive singular of ope

French

Etymology

Borrowed from English open.

Pronunciation

Noun

open m (plural opens)

  1. open; open tournament

Further reading


Middle Dutch

Etymology

From Old Dutch opan, from Proto-Germanic *upanaz.

Adjective

ōpen

  1. open, not closed
  2. open, accessible
  3. freely accessible, public

Inflection

This adjective needs an inflection-table template.

Derived terms

Descendants

Further reading


Middle English

Alternative forms

Etymology

From Old English open, from Proto-Germanic *upanaz.

Adjective

open (comparative more open, superlative most open)

  1. open
    • 14th c. Geoffrey Chaucer, The Canterbury Tales. General Prologue: 9-11.
      And smale foweles maken melodye,
      That slepen al the nyght with open eye-
      (So priketh hem Nature in hir corages);
      And many little birds make melody
      That sleep through all the night with open eye
      (So Nature pricks them on to ramp and rage)

Related terms

Descendants


Norwegian Nynorsk

Etymology

From Old Norse opinn, from Proto-Germanic *upanaz. Compare Faroese opin, Icelandic opinn, Swedish öppen, Danish åben, Dutch open, Low German apen, open, German offen, West Frisian iepen, English open.

Pronunciation

Adjective

open (neuter ope or opent, definite singular and plural opne, comparative opnare, indefinite superlative opnast, definite superlative opnaste)

  1. open
    Kvifor er døra open?
    Why is the door open?

Usage notes

A common, but unofficial, feminine form is opa (“ei opa dør”, cf. lita and inga). Up until 2012, opi was an optional official form, but was removed along with other forms like liti and ingi.

Related terms

References


Old English

Etymology

From Proto-Germanic *upanaz. Originally a past participle of Proto-Germanic *ūpaną (to lift up, open). Related to Old English upp (up). Cognate with Old Frisian open, Old Saxon opan, Old High German offan, and Old Norse opinn.

Pronunciation

Adjective

open

  1. open
    • 11th century, unknown translator, the Old English Apollonius of Tyre
      Þā ġeseah hē ānne nacodne cnapan ġeond þā strǣte rinnan. Sē wæs mid ele ġesmiered and mid sċīetan beġierded, and cleopode mid miċelre stefne and cwæþ, "Ġehīeraþ ġē ċeasterwaran, ġehīeraþ ġē ælþēodiġe, friġe and þēowe, æðele and unæðele: sē bæþstede is open!"
      Then he saw a naked boy running through the street. His body was smeared with oil and he was wearing a sheet around his waist, when he called out in a loud voice, "Attention citizens, attention foreigners, free and slave, noble and ignoble: the bathhouse is open!"

Declension

Derived terms

Descendants


Plautdietsch

Adjective

open

  1. open

Spanish

Etymology

From English open.

Pronunciation

Noun

open m (plural opens or open)

  1. (sports) open