qui

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See also: quí, quì, qûi, quỉ, and -qui

Aragonese

Etymology

From Latin quī.

Pronoun

qui

  1. (interrogative) who? whom?

Catalan

Etymology

From Latin quī.

Pronunciation

Pronoun

qui

  1. (interrogative) who, whom
  2. whoever
    • 2019 August 17, Magí Camps, “Esther Tallada: “Cada traductor és fidel a la seva manera””, in La Vanguardia:
      Qui tradueix hi aporta coses, pren decisions en funció del que li suscita l’original, segons el que creu que és més important destacar.
      Whoever translates contributes things to it; they make decisions depending on what the original arouses in them, according to what they believe is most important to emphasize.

Related terms

Further reading


French

Etymology

From Middle French qui, from Old French qui, from Latin quī..

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ki/
  • (file)
  • (file)

Pronoun

qui

  1. (interrogative) who, whom
    Tu as vu qui ?
    Who have you seen?
    Je ne sais pas qui vous êtes.
    I don't know who you are.
  2. (relative) who, whom (after a preposition), which, that
    La personne qui parle connait bien son sujet.
    The person who speaks knows his/her subject well.
    Cette voiture bleue qui passe me plait beaucoup.
    This blue car which is passing I like a lot.
    J’aime les chiens qui sont calmes.
    I like dogs that are quiet.
    Un homme à qui j’ai parlé.
    A man to whom I spoke/have spoken.
    Si lugubre que fût l’appartement, c’était un paradis pour qui revenait du lycée.
    Gloomy as the apartment was, it was still a paradise for those who came back from school.
    Rira bien qui rira le dernier.
    Who laughs last laughs well.

Usage notes

After a preposition, qui can only refer to people; things (including animals, objects, ideas, etc.) require the pronoun lequel. After the prepositions entre (between) and parmi (among), lesquels/lesquelles (the plural forms of lequel, the singulars being — logically — much less common) must be used whether referring to a person or a thing.

Derived terms

Conjunction

qui

  1. (Louisiana, Cajun) if
    Qui elle en a, ça va faire.
    If she has any, that will do.

Further reading


Ido

Pronunciation

Pronoun

qui

  1. plural of qua
  2. (relative pronoun) which (plural)
    Esis tre jentila homi qui helpis ni.It was a nice man who helped us.
  3. (interrogative pronoun) who (plural)
    Qui esas ita kerli?Who are these guys?
    (direct question)
    Me ne konocas qui iti esas.I don't know who these are.
    (indirect question)

Pronoun

qui

  1. plural of quo
  2. (relative pronoun) which (plural)
    Esis tre bona kulteli qui me tranchis per.They were really good knives with which I cut.
  3. (interrogative pronoun) what (plural)
    Qui eventis?What (thing) happened?
    (indicating that several things happened) (direct question)
    Ka tu povas helpar me decidar qui metar?Can you help me to decide what to wear?
    (indicating that several things are to be worn) (indirect question)

Related terms

  • qua (who (person))
  • quo (what (thing))
  • qui (who (plural))
  • pro quo (why)

See also


Interlingua

Pronunciation

Pronoun

qui

  1. (interrogative) who
  2. (relative) who; whom

Usage notes

  • As a relative, qui is used in the nominative and after prepositions.
    un contabile qui sape disfacer se del evidentia
    an accountant who knows how to get rid of evidence
    un contabile super qui nos pote contar
    an accountant on whom we can count
  • In the oblique, que is used instead.
    un contabile que le policia non perseque
    an accountant whom the police are not pursuing

Italian

Alternative forms

Etymology

From Vulgar Latin *eccum hīc (with apocope), from Latin eccum + hīc.

The original geminated -cc-, though lost in the standard language, is still found in most regional Italian varieties.

Pronunciation

Adverb

qui

  1. here
    Synonym: qua

Usage notes

While qui and qua are mostly interchangeable, qui has a more punctual meaning whereas qua is more vague, similar to the pair and .

See also

References

  • qui in Luciano Canepari, Dizionario di Pronuncia Italiana (DiPI)
  • qui in Treccani.it – Vocabolario Treccani on line, Istituto dell'Enciclopedia Italiana

Latin

See also

Pronunciation

Etymology 1

From earlier quei, from Proto-Italic *kʷoi, from Proto-Indo-European *kʷis, *kʷos.

Alternative forms

  • quei (standard Republican spelling, later esp. to distinguish the plural)
  • quoi, qoi (Early Latin)

Pronoun

quī (feminine quae, neuter quod); relative/interrogative pronoun

  1. (relative) who, that, which
    • 239 BCE – 169 BCE, Ennius, Annales 1, (fragment in Varro, De Lingua Latina 7.20):
      Mūsae, quae pedibus magnum pulsātis Olympum
      O Muses, who with your feet press great Olympus...
    • 405 CE, Jerome, Vulgate Tobit 2:18:
      Quoniam fīliī sānctōrum sumus, et vītam illam expectāmus, quam Deus datūrus est hīs quī fidem suam numquam mūtant ab eō.
      For we are the children of saints, and look for that life which God will give to those that never change their faith from him.
    • c. 524 CE, Boethius, De philosophiae consolatione 1.1:
      Mors hominum felix, quae se nec dulcibus annis
      Inserit et maestis saepe uocata uenit.
      Fortunate is that human death that doesn't step in during one's sweet years, and comes to the sorrowful after being often called!
  2. (indefinite, after , nisi, num, ) anyone, any
    • 70 BCE – 19 BCE, Virgil, Eclogues 6.9-10:
      quis tamen haec quoque, sī quis
      captus amōre leget, tē nostrae, Vāre, myrīcae,
      tē nemus omne canet
      If anyone, if anyone reads this captured by love , our tamarisks shall sing of you, Varus, and of you every grove shall sing.
    • 405 CE, Jerome, Vulgate Evangelium secundum Ioannem 3:5:
      Respondit Iēsus: āmēn āmēn, dīcō tibi, nisi quis renātus fuerit ex aquā et Spīritū, nōn potest introīre in regnum Deī.
      Jesus replied, "verily verily, I say to you, unless a person is reborn out of water and Spirit, that person can't enter into the kingdom of God."
    • 405 CE, Jerome, Vulgate Epistula ad Hebraeos 12:16:
      quis fornicātor, aut profānus ut Esau, quī propter ūnam ēscam vendidit prīmitīva sua.
      Do not let anyone be a fornicator, nor a profane person like Esau, who sold his birthright for a single meal.
Declension

Irregular. Relative/interrogative pronoun.

Number Singular Plural
Case / Gender Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative quī quae quod quī quae
Genitive cuius quōrum quārum quōrum
Dative cui quibus
quīs
Accusative quem quam quod quōs quās quae
Ablative quō quā quō quibus
quīs
  • Common Republican spellings are the gen.sg. quoius, the dat.sg. quoi, and the dat./abl.pl. queis.

Adjective

quī (feminine quae, neuter quod); relative/interrogative pronoun

  1. (interrogative) who, what, which
    • 55 BCE, Cicero, De Oratore 2.34:
      Qui enim cantus moderata oratione dulcior inveniri potest? Quod carmen artificiosa verborum conclusione aptius? Qui actor imitanda quam orator suscipienda veritate iucundior?
      What music can be found more sweet than the pronunciation of a well-ordered oration? What poem more agreeable than the skilful structure of prose? What actor has ever given greater pleasure in imitating, than an orator gives in supporting, truth?
  2. (indefinite, after si, nisi, num, ne) anyone, any
    • c. 200 BCE, Plautus, Menaechmi 340:
      quae peregrīna nāvis in portum advenit, rogitant cuiātis sit
      If any foreign ship comes into the port, they ask where it comes from
    • 100 BCE – 44 BCE, Julius Caesar, De Bello Gallico 1.31:
      Ariovistum obsidēs nōbilissimī cuiusque līberōs poscere, et in eōs omnia exempla cruciatūsque ēdere, sī qua rēs nōn ad nūtum aut ad voluntātem eius facta sit.
      Ariovistus ... demanded the children of all the high nobles as hostages, and afflict them with every kind of cruelty, if anything wasn't done with his approval or for his pleasure.
Declension

Irregular. Relative/interrogative pronoun.

Number Singular Plural
Case / Gender Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative quī quae quod quī quae
Genitive cuius quōrum quārum quōrum
Dative cui quibus
quīs
Accusative quem quam quod quōs quās quae
Ablative quō quā quō quibus
quīs
  • Common Republican spellings are the genitive singular quoius, the dative singular quoi, and the dative and ablative plural queis.
  • The indefinite adjective is normally qua instead of quae in the nom. f. sg. and nom./acc. neut. pl., but rarely the pronoun or the interrogative adjective.

Derived terms

Related terms

Descendants

  • Balkan Romance:
    • Aromanian: tsini, cui
    • Romanian: cine, cui
  • Italo-Romance:
  • Northern Gallo-Romance:
  • Southern Gallo-Romance:
  • Ibero-Romance:
  • Borrowings:
    • Interlingua: qui

References

  • qui¹”, in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • Allen, Joseph Henry; Greenough, James B. (1903) Allen and Greenough's New Latin grammar for schools and colleges: founded on comparative grammar, Boston: Ginn and Company, § 147 (relative pronoun)
  • Allen, Joseph Henry; Greenough, James B. (1903) Allen and Greenough's New Latin grammar for schools and colleges: founded on comparative grammar, Boston: Ginn and Company, § 149 (indefinite adjective)

Etymology 2

Old instrumental case of quis, from Proto-Indo-European *kʷey. Cognate with English why.

Adverb

quī (not comparable)

  1. (interrogative) In what way? how? whereby? by what means? why?
  2. (relative) wherewith, whereby, wherefrom, how; that, in order that
    c. 52 BCE, Julius Caesar, Commentarii de Bello Gallico VII.11:
    Ea quī cōnficeret, C. Trebōnium lēgātum relinquit.
    To complete these arrangements, he leaves C. Trebonius in command.
  3. (indefinite, with hercle, edepol, at, quippe, ut) somehow, surely
Synonyms
  • (how?): ut
Derived terms

References

  • qui²”, in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • qui”, in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • qui in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré latin-français, Hachette
  • Carl Meißner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book, London: Macmillan and Co.
    • (ambiguous) the visible world: haec omnia, quae videmus
    • (ambiguous) the vegetable kingdom: ea, quae terra gignit
    • (ambiguous) the vegetable kingdom: ea, quae e terra gignuntur
    • (ambiguous) the vegetable kingdom: ea, quae a terra stirpibus continentur
    • (ambiguous) the vegetable kingdom: ea quorum stirpes terra continentur (N. D. 2. 10. 26)
    • (ambiguous) the atmosphere: aer qui est terrae proximus
    • (ambiguous) eastern, western Germany: Germania quae or Germaniae ea pars quae, ad orientem, occidentem vergit
    • (ambiguous) where are you going: quo tendis?
    • (ambiguous) I cannot wait till..: nihil mihi longius est or videtur quam dum or quam ut
    • (ambiguous) nothing is more tiresome to me than..: nihil mihi longius est quam (c. Inf.)
    • (ambiguous) since the time that, since (at the beginning of a sentence): ex quo tempore or simply ex quo
    • (ambiguous) the middle ages: media quae vocatur aetas
    • (ambiguous) Pericles, the greatest man of his day: Pericles, quo nemo tum fuit clarior
    • (ambiguous) Pericles, the greatest man of his day: Pericles, vir omnium, qui tum fuerunt, clarissimus
    • (ambiguous) it is more than twenty years ago: amplius sunt (quam) viginti anni or viginti annis
    • (ambiguous) on the day after, which was September 5th: postridie qui fuit dies Non. Sept. (Nonarum Septembrium) (Att. 4. 1. 5)
    • (ambiguous) to-day the 5th of September; tomorrow September the 5th: hodie qui est dies Non. Sept.; cras qui dies futurus est Non. Sept.
    • (ambiguous) to fail to see what lies before one: quod ante pedes est or positum est, non videre
    • (ambiguous) the world of sense, the visible world: res quas oculis cernimus
    • (ambiguous) those to whom we owe our being: ei, propter quos hanc lucem aspeximus
    • (ambiguous) the rest of one's life: quod reliquum est vitae
    • (ambiguous) how old are you: qua aetate es?
    • (ambiguous) our contemporaries; men of our time: homines qui nunc sunt (opp. qui tunc fuerunt)
    • (ambiguous) how are you getting on: quo loco res tuae sunt?
    • (ambiguous) under such circumstances: quae cum ita sint
    • (ambiguous) from this point of view; similarly: quo in genere
    • (ambiguous) by some chance or other: nescio quo casu (with Indic.)
    • (ambiguous) Fortune's favourite: is, quem fortuna complexa est
    • (ambiguous) it is most fortunate that..: peropportune accidit, quod
    • (ambiguous) you were right in...; you did right to..: recte, bene fecisti quod...
    • (ambiguous) Plato's ideal republic: illa civitas, quam Plato finxit
    • (ambiguous) this is more plausible than true: haec speciosiora quam veriora sunt
    • (ambiguous) a thing which is rather (very) dubious: quod aliquam (magnam) dubitationem habet (Leg. Agr. 1. 4. 11)
    • (ambiguous) as far as I know: quod sciam
    • (ambiguous) he attained his object: id quod voluit consecutus est
    • (ambiguous) he attained his object: ad id quod voluit pervenit
    • (ambiguous) abstruse studies: studia, quae in reconditis artibus versantur (De Or. 1. 2. 8)
    • (ambiguous) the usual subjects taught to boys: doctrinae, quibus aetas puerilis impertiri solet (Nep. Att. 1. 2)
    • (ambiguous) the usual subjects taught to boys: artes, quibus aetas puerilis ad humanitatem informari solet
    • (ambiguous) men of that profession: qui ista profitentur
    • (ambiguous) philosophical subjects: quae in philosophia tractantur
    • (ambiguous) disciples of Plato, Platonists: qui sunt a Platone or a Platonis disciplina; qui profecti sunt a Platone; Platonici
    • (ambiguous) moral science; ethics: philosophia, quae est de vita et moribus (Acad. 1. 5. 19)
    • (ambiguous) moral science; ethics: philosophia, in qua de bonis rebus et malis, deque hominum vita et moribus disputatur
    • (ambiguous) theoretical, speculative philosophy: philosophia, quae in rerum contemplatione versatur, or quae artis praeceptis continetur
    • (ambiguous) practical philosophy: philosophia, quae in actione versatur
    • (ambiguous) to determine the nature and constitution of the subject under discussion: constituere, quid et quale sit, de quo disputetur
    • (ambiguous) to bring forward a proof of the immortality of the soul: argumentum afferre, quo animos immortales esse demonstratur
    • (ambiguous) a proof of this is that..: argumento huic rei est, quod
    • (ambiguous) it follows from this that..: sequitur (not ex quo seq.) ut
    • (ambiguous) it follows from this that..: ex quo, unde, hinc efficitur ut
    • (ambiguous) the point at issue: id, de quo agitur or id quod cadit in controversiam
    • (ambiguous) the connection of thought: ratio, qua sententiae inter se excipiunt.
    • (ambiguous) I have exhausted all my material: copiam quam potui persecutus sum
    • (ambiguous) a digression, episode: quod ornandi causa additum est
    • (ambiguous) I have nothing to write about: non habeo, non est quod scribam
    • (ambiguous) a theme, subject proposed for discussion: id quod (mihi) propositum est
    • (ambiguous) a theme, subject proposed for discussion: id quod quaerimus (quaeritur)
    • (ambiguous) a theme, subject proposed for discussion: institutum or id quod institui
    • (ambiguous) to set some one a theme for discussion: ponere alicui, de quo disputet
    • (ambiguous) to let those present fix any subject they like for discussion: ponere iubere, qua de re quis audire velit (Fin. 2. 1. 1)
    • (ambiguous) the question at issue: res, de qua nunc quaerimus, quaeritur
    • (ambiguous) what is the meaning, the original sense of this word: quae est vis huius verbi?
    • (ambiguous) what is the meaning, the original sense of this word: quae notio or sententia subiecta est huic voci?
    • (ambiguous) what do we understand by 'a wise man': quem intellegimus sapientem?
    • (ambiguous) what do we mean by 'virtue': quae intellegitur virtus
    • (ambiguous) as the proverb says: ut or quod or quomodo aiunt, ut or quemadmodum dicitur
    • (ambiguous) Cicero says in his 'Laelius.: Cicero dicit in Laelio (suo) or in eo (not suo) libro, qui inscribitur Laelius
    • (ambiguous) a book which is attributed to some one: liber qui fertur alicuius
    • (ambiguous) the book is attributed to an unknown writer: liber refertur ad nescio quem auctorem
    • (ambiguous) the reader: legentes, ii qui legunt
    • (ambiguous) a letter to Atticus: epistula ad Atticum data, scripta, missa or quae ad A. scripta est
    • (ambiguous) I am pained, vexed, sorry: aegre, graviter, moleste fero aliquid (or with Acc. c. Inf. or quod)
    • (ambiguous) there is nothing I am more interested in than..: nihil antiquius or prius habeo quam ut (nihil mihi antiquius or potius est, quam ut)
    • (ambiguous) an atheist: qui deum esse negat
    • (ambiguous) and may God grant success: quod deus bene vertat!
    • (ambiguous) and may heaven avert the omen! heaven preserve us from this: quod di immortales omen avertant! (Phil. 44. 11)
    • (ambiguous) God forbid: quod abominor! (procul absit!)
    • (ambiguous) may heaven's blessing rest on it: quod bonum, faustum, felix, fortunatumque sit! (Div. 1. 45. 102)
    • (ambiguous) movable, personal property: res, quae moveri possunt; res moventes (Liv. 5. 25. 6)
    • (ambiguous) the necessaries of life: quae ad victum pertinent
    • (ambiguous) a livelihood: quae suppeditant ad victum (Off. 1. 4. 12)
    • (ambiguous) I have no means, no livelihood: non habeo, qui (unde) vivam
    • (ambiguous) to talk of a subject which was then the common topic of conversation: in eum sermonem incidere, qui tum fere multis erat in ore
    • (ambiguous) imports and exports: res, quae importantur et exportantur
    • (ambiguous) the debtor: debitor, or is qui debet
    • (ambiguous) the perfume exhaled by flowers: odores, qui efflantur e floribus
    • (ambiguous) domestic animals: animalia quae nobiscum degunt (Plin. 8. 40)
    • (ambiguous) a legislator: qui leges scribit (not legum lator)
    • (ambiguous) aristocracy (as a form of government): civitas, quae optimatium arbitrio regitur
    • (ambiguous) the aristocracy (as a party in politics): boni cives, optimi, optimates, also simply boni (opp. improbi); illi, qui optimatium causam agunt
    • (ambiguous) the aristocracy (as a social class): nobiles; nobilitas; qui nobilitate generis excellunt
    • (ambiguous) the public income from the mines: pecunia publica, quae ex metallis redit
    • (ambiguous) men of military age: qui arma ferre possunt or iuventus
    • (ambiguous) men exempt from service owing to age: qui per aetatem arma ferre non possunt or aetate ad bellum inutiles
    • (ambiguous) veterans; experienced troops: qui magnum in castris usum habent
    • (ambiguous) by the longest possible forced marches: quam maximis itineribus (potest)
    • (ambiguous) the cohort on guard-duty: cohors, quae in statione est
    • (ambiguous) subjects: qui imperio subiecti sunt
    • (ambiguous) to sum up..: ut eorum, quae dixi, summam faciam
    • (ambiguous) I will give you my true opinion: dicam quod sentio
    • (ambiguous) this I have to say: haec habeo dicere or habeo quae dicam
    • (ambiguous) without wishing to boast, yet..: quod vere praedicare possum
    • (ambiguous) which I can say without offence, arrogance: quod non arroganter dixerim
    • (ambiguous) to except the fact that..: praeterquam quod or nisi quod
    • (ambiguous) from this it appears, is apparent: ex quo intellegitur or intellegi potest, debet
    • (ambiguous) from this it appears, is apparent: ex quo perspicuum est
    • (ambiguous) the main point: id quod maximum, gravissimum est
    • (ambiguous) the main point: quod caput est
    • (ambiguous) what is more important: quod maius est

Etymology 3

Inflection of quis.

Pronoun

quī m pl

  1. nominative masculine plural of quis

Middle French

Etymology

From Old French qui, from Latin quī.

Pronoun

qui

  1. who
  2. which (when referring to a non-human)

Descendants


Old French

Alternative forms

Etymology

From Latin quī.

Pronunciation

Pronoun

qui

  1. who
    • c. 1170, Christian of Troyes, Yvain ou le Chevalier au Lion, lines 1–2:
      Li boins roys Artus de Bretaigne,
      La qui proeche nous ensengne
      The good king Arthur of Britain
      Who teaches us valiance

Descendants


Old Occitan

Pronoun

qui

  1. Alternative form of cui

Old Spanish

Etymology

From Latin quī.

Pronunciation

Pronoun

qui

  1. (interrogative) who, whom
  2. (relative) who, whom (after a preposition), which, that

Further reading


Portuguese

Pronunciation

  • Rhymes: -i

Etymology 1

Noun

qui m (plural quis)

  1. chi (name of the Greek letter Χ)

Etymology 2

Pronoun

qui

  1. Eye dialect spelling of que, representing Brazil Portuguese.

Spanish

Etymology

From Latin quī.

Pronunciation

Pronoun

qui

  1. (relative, obsolete) who, whom

Further reading


Vietnamese

Noun

qui

  1. Alternative spelling of quy.

Verb

qui

  1. Alternative spelling of quy.