ya

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English

English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

Etymology 1

Reduced form of you. Compare Dutch je, reduced/unstressed form of jij (you).

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /jə/
  • (file)
  • Rhymes:

Pronoun

ya

  1. Nonstandard spelling of you.
    • 2011, Byron Douglas, chapter 3, in A Journey Through the Life of an Anti-Social, →ISBN:
      Lola got a shocked look on her face then said, “Ya need to stop actin' jealous if ya aint, and ya can't control what I do. Ya aint my daddy and ya aint my man. I'll see ya tomorrah after work if ya want. Just give me a call, ya have my number”.
Usage notes

Only used in unstressed contexts.

Derived terms

See also

Etymology 2

Apparently from German ja and cognates in other Germanic languages; related to English yeah.

Pronunciation

Interjection

ya

  1. (informal) Yeah; yes.

Etymology 3

From Middle English ya, from Old English ġēa, (yea, yes). More at yea.

Alternative forms

Pronunciation

Adverb

ya (not comparable)

  1. (UK dialectal, West Country, Northern England, Scotland) yea; yes
    • 1806, Jamieson, Pop. Ballads:
      'Ya, wilt thou!' said Wallace, 'then tak thee that, '
    • 1894, W. G. Stevenson, Puddin' iii.:
      Ya, auld man, ye ken fine ye wad like me.
    • 1896, Ackworth, Clog Shop Chron.:
      Ya, bur 'ee did,

Etymology 4

Variation of hyah.

Interjection

ya

  1. (informal) Go. (Spoken to horses and cattle.)

Etymology 5

Determiner

ya

  1. Nonstandard spelling of your.
Derived terms

Etymology 6

From Russian я (ja).

Pronunciation

Noun

ya (plural yas)

  1. A letter of the Cyrillic alphabet: Я, я.
Translations

Anagrams


Abui

Noun

ya

  1. water

References

  • František Kratochvíl, A grammar of Abui: a Papuan language of Alor (2007)
  • František Kratochvíl, Benidiktus Delpada, Abui-Indonesian-English Dictionary (2008)

Angkamuthi

Verb

ya

  1. (Yadhaykenu) throw

References

  • Claire Bowern, Harold James Koch, Australian Languages: Classification and the Comparative Method (2004), page 537

Anguthimri

Verb

ya

  1. (transitive, Mpakwithi) to give
  2. (transitive, Mpakwithi) to bring

References

  • Terry Crowley, The Mpakwithi dialect of Anguthimri (1981), page 189

Barngarla

Pronunciation

Noun

ya

  1. mouth

References


Bilbil

Noun

ya

  1. fire

Further reading

  • Malcolm Ross, Proto Oceanic and the Austronesian Languages of Western Melanesia, Pacific Linguistics, series C-98 (1988)

Breton

Particle

ya

  1. yes, word used to show agreement or acceptance.
    Ya, gwir eo!Yes, that's correct!

Cameroon Pidgin

Determiner

ya

  1. Alternative spelling of your (2st person singular possessive determiner)

Chamorro

Conjunction

ya

  1. and

Usage notes

Used to indicate causation. To connect two similar words or phrases the alternate yan.


Chavacano

Etymology

From Spanish ya.

Adverb

ya

  1. Indicates the past tense.

Chickasaw

Verb

ya (stative, irregular)

  1. to be (something)

Usage notes

  • It cannot be used by itself and must always have a preceding noun that names what it or the person "is".
  • It can only be used with a Class II subject marker.
  • Ya is never used with N prefixes.
  • It can be used with verb suffixes such as -tok, -taam, -a'chi, etc.
  • For sentences where a Class II subject marker is not needed or cannot be used, then the verb root oo can be used instead.
  • For the future tense, a'chi can be used as a standalone word rather than a suffix completely replacing the use of a verb and having the meaning "will be". Similarly, a'ni, "might be" could possibly work in a similar fashion, replacing the presence of an explicit verb as well, although it is not normally used in sentences expressing being something.
  • The prefix hoo- is never used with any forms of the verb "to be" (ya, oo, a'chi).
  • To ask questions such as "Is it a/an....", see the entries for the noun suffixes -to̠ (used after consonants) and -hto̠ (used after vowels).

Synonyms


Eastern Huasteca Nahuatl

Pronoun

ya

  1. third person; he, she

See also


Gedaged

Noun

ya

  1. fire

Further reading

  • Malcolm Ross, Proto Oceanic and the Austronesian Languages of Western Melanesia, Pacific Linguistics, series C-98 (1988)

Ido

Etymology

Borrowed from Esperanto ja.

Pronunciation

Adverb

ya

  1. indeed

Igbo

Etymology

Pronunciation

Pronoun

ya (independent form, dependent form o)

  1. (personal, epicene) he, she, it
    Ahụrụ m ya
    I saw him.

See also


Indonesian

Pronunciation

Etymology 1

Borrowed from Dutch ja.

Interjection

ya

  1. yes

Etymology 2

From Malay ya, from Classical Malay ي(ya), borrowed from Arabic يَا().

Particle

ya

  1. Vocative particle (followed by name): o
    Ya Tuhan!
    O my God!
    Ya ampun!
    O my gosh! (literally translates to 'Oh mercy!')

Further reading


Japanese

Romanization

ya

  1. Rōmaji transcription of
  2. Rōmaji transcription of

Kesawai

Noun

ya

  1. water

Further reading

  • Carol Priestley, Talking about space in Koromu
  • Carol Priestley, Social categories, shared experience, reciprocity and endangered meanings: examples from Koromu

Kou

Noun

ya

  1. water

Further reading

  • Johannes A. Z'graggen, A Comparative Word list of the Rai Coast Languages, Madang Province, Papua New Guinea, Pacific Linguistics (1980) (as Sinsauru)

Laboya

Verb

ya

  1. to eat

References

  • Rina, A. Dj.; Kabba, John Lado B. (2011), “ya”, in Kamus Bahasa Lamboya, Kabupaten Sumba Bakat [Dictionary of Lamboya Language, West Sumba Regency], Waikabubak: Dinas Kebudayaan dan Pariwisata, Kabupaten Sumba Bakat, page 103

Lingala

Preposition

ya

  1. of

Usage notes

In colloquial Lingala, this does not vary depending on noun class.

Declension

Class Singular Class Plural
1 wa 2 ba
3 mwa 4 mya
5 lya (za) 6 ma
7 ya 8 bya
9 ya 10 ya
11 la (lwa)
14 bwa

Malay

Etymology 1

Borrowed from Arabic يَا(, vocative particle).

Pronunciation

Particle

ya

  1. Vocative particle (followed by name):
    Ya, Allah!
    Oh, God!
    Synonyms: wahai, hai

Etymology 2

Borrowed from Arabic يَا(, letter name).

Pronunciation

Noun

ya (Jawi spelling يا‎, plural ya-ya, informal 1st possessive yaku, 2nd possessive yamu, 3rd possessive yanya)

  1. the 29th letter of the Arabic alphabet (ي)
    Huruf ya
    The letter ya

Etymology 3

Borrowed from Dutch ja, from Middle Dutch ja, from Old Dutch *jā, from Proto-Germanic *ja.

Pronunciation

Interjection

ya (Jawi spelling يا‎)

  1. grammatical interjection for confirmation
    Dia orang kaya, ya?
    He's a rich person, right?
    Synonym: kan (colloquial)
  2. grammatical interjection for affirmation
    Ya, ini Patrick.
    Yes, this is Patrick.
    Synonym: ha'ah (colloquial)

Further reading


Mandarin

Romanization

ya (ya5 / ya0, Zhuyin ˙ㄧㄚ)

  1. Hanyu Pinyin reading of .
  2. Hanyu Pinyin reading of .

ya

  1. Nonstandard spelling of .
  2. Nonstandard spelling of .
  3. Nonstandard spelling of .
  4. Nonstandard spelling of .

Usage notes

  • English transcriptions of Mandarin speech often fail to distinguish between the critical tonal differences employed in the Mandarin language, using words such as this one without the appropriate indication of tone.

Marik

Noun

ya

  1. fire

Further reading

  • Malcolm Ross, Proto Oceanic and the Austronesian Languages of Western Melanesia, Pacific Linguistics, series C-98 (1988)

Mindiri

Noun

ya

  1. fire

Further reading

  • Malcolm Ross, Proto Oceanic and the Austronesian Languages of Western Melanesia, Pacific Linguistics, series C-98 (1988)

Northern Ndebele

Etymology

From Proto-Bantu *-gɪ̀a.

Verb

-ya

  1. to go to, towards

Inflection

This verb needs an inflection-table template.


Northern Sotho

Etymology

From Proto-Bantu *-gɪ̀a.

Verb

ya

  1. to go

Nzadi

Pronoun

yǎ`

  1. you (second-person singular pronoun)

See also


Pali

Etymology

From Sanskrit यद् (yad).

Alternative forms

Etymology 1

Pronoun

ya m

  1. (relative) who, which, that
Declension

Pronoun

ya n

  1. (relative) which, that
  2. (relative) (duplicated) whatever
    • c. 500 AD, Kaccāyana, Pālivyākaraṇaṃ [Pali Grammar]‎ (in Pali), page 250; republished as Satish Chandra Acharyya Vidyabhusana, editor, Kaccayana's Pali Grammar (edited in Devanagari character and translated into English), Calcutta, Bengal: Mahabodhi Society, 1901:
      अथ सब्बासं विभत्तीनं यानि यानि पुब्बानि छ पदानि तानि तानि परस्सपदसञ्ञानि होन्ति।
      Atha sabbāsaṃ vibhattīnaṃ yāni yāni pubbāni cha padāni, tāni tāni parassapadasaññāni honti.
      Then whatever are the first six endings of all the endings, they are called the active endings.
Declension

Derived terms

Etymology 2

Probably from the pronunciation of a syllable consisting only of the letter.

Noun

ya m

  1. the Pali letter 'y'
    • c. 500 AD, Kaccāyana, Pālivyākaraṇaṃ [Pali Grammar]‎ (in Pali), page 4; republished as Satish Chandra Acharyya Vidyabhusana, editor, Kaccayana's Pali Grammar (edited in Devanagari character and translated into English), Calcutta, Bengal: Mahabodhi Society, 1901:
      क, ख, ग, घ, ङ, च, छ, ज, झ, ञ, ट, ठ, ड, ढ, ण, त, थ, द, ध, न, प, फ, ब, भ, म, , र, ल, व, स, ह, ळ, ं। इति व्यञ्जन नाम होन्ति।
      Ka, kha, ga, gha, ṅa, ca, cha, ja, jha, ña, ṭa, ṭha, ḍa, ḍha, ṇa, ta, tha, da, dha, na, pa, pha, ba, bha, ma, ya, ra, la, va, sa, ha, ḷa, aṃ, iti vyañjanā nāma honti.
      'k', 'kh', 'g', 'gh', 'ṅ', 'c', 'ch', 'j', 'jh', 'ñ, 'ṭ', 'ṭh', 'ḍ', 'ḍh', 'ṇ', 't', 'th', 'd', 'dh', 'n', 'p', 'ph', 'b', 'bh', 'm', 'y', 'r', 'l', 'v', 's', 'h', 'ḷ' and 'ṃ', these are the consonants by name.
    • c. 500 AD, Kaccāyana, Pālivyākaraṇaṃ [Pali Grammar]‎ (in Pali), page 12; republished as Satish Chandra Acharyya Vidyabhusana, editor, Kaccayana's Pali Grammar (edited in Devanagari character and translated into English), Calcutta, Bengal: Mahabodhi Society, 1901:
      यो जस्स यथा-नियंपुत्तं।
      Yo jassa yathā- niyaṃputtaṃ.
      'Y' from 'j' as in 'niyaṃputtaṃ'.
    • c. 500 AD, Kaccāyana, Pālivyākaraṇaṃ [Pali Grammar]‎ (in Pali), page 10; republished as Satish Chandra Acharyya Vidyabhusana, editor, Kaccayana's Pali Grammar (edited in Devanagari character and translated into English), Calcutta, Bengal: Mahabodhi Society, 1901:
      यं एदन्तस्सादेसो॥६॥
      6. Yaṃ edantassādeso.
      6. Change of final 'e' to 'y'.
    • c. 500 AD, Kaccāyana, Pālivyākaraṇaṃ [Pali Grammar]‎ (in Pali), page 12; republished as Satish Chandra Acharyya Vidyabhusana, editor, Kaccayana's Pali Grammar (edited in Devanagari character and translated into English), Calcutta, Bengal: Mahabodhi Society, 1901:
      को यस्स यथा-सको।
      Ko yassa yathā-sako.
      'K' from 'y' as in 'sako'.
Declension
Synonyms

References

Pali Text Society (1921-1925), “ya”, in Pali-English Dictionary‎, London: Chipstead


Pennsylvania German

Etymology

Compare German ja, Dutch ja, Swedish ja.

Interjection

ya

  1. yes, yeah

Phuthi

Etymology

From Proto-Bantu *-gɪ̀a.

Verb

-ya

  1. to go to, towards

Inflection

This entry needs an inflection-table template.


Portuguese

Pronunciation

  • Rhymes: -a

Adverb

ya

  1. Alternative form of

Scots

Numeral

ya

  1. Alternative form of ae

References


Sotho

Etymology

From Proto-Bantu *-gɪ̀a.

Verb

ya

  1. to go

South Slavey

Etymology

From Proto-Athabaskan *yaˑ. Cognates include Navajo .

Pronunciation

Noun

ya

  1. sky

References

  • Keren Rice (1989) A Grammar of Slave, Berlin, West Germany: Mouton de Gruyter, →ISBN, page 92

Southern Ndebele

Etymology

From Proto-Bantu *-gɪ̀a.

Verb

-ya

  1. to go to, towards

Inflection

This entry needs an inflection-table template.


Spanish

Etymology

From Latin iam. Compare Portuguese , French déjà and Italian già.

Pronunciation

 
  • IPA(key): (everywhere but Argentina and Uruguay) /ˈʝa/,
  • IPA(key): (Buenos Aires and environs) /ˈʃa/,
  • IPA(key): (elsewhere in Argentina and Uruguay) /ˈʒa/,
  • (file)
  • Adverb

    ya

    1. now
      Púlsalo ya.Press it now.
      Preparados, listos, ya.Ready, set, go.
      Synonyms: ahora, (colloquial) ahorita
    2. already, yet
      Ya lo hice.I already did it.
    3. in the near future; soon
    4. immediately
      Synonym: ahora mismo
    5. anymore; no longer
    6. (emphatic) emphatic (similar to the use of English "so" or "oh" as an interjection)
      ¡Ya lo sé!I do know!
    7. (in negatives) only
      no ya...not only...
    8. (before pero) yes
      ya, pero...yes, but...
    9. (before que) since, now
      ya que...now that...

    Derived terms

    Conjunction

    ya ... ya ...

    1. first (something) then (something else); first (something), now (something else)
      ¡Ya lluvia ya nieve!
      First rain, now snow!
    2. whether (something) or (something else)
      ya sol ya lluvia
      whether sun or rain

    Interjection

    ya

    1. come on!, let's go!
      Synonyms: vamos, vámonos, adelante, ándale, (Mexico) órale, (Chile) ya po
    2. (colloquial) Used to acknowledge or dismiss the previous statement.
      —Sabes que quedamos con Antonio esta tarde. —Ya.
      "You know we're hanging out with Antonio tonight." "I know."
      —No podrás venir, que trabajas ese día. —Ya, pero cerramos temprano los viernes.
      "You can't come, you're working that day." "Right, but we close early on Fridays."

    Further reading


    Swahili

    Pronunciation

    Particle

    ya

    1. N class inflected form of -a (singular only).
    2. Mi class inflected form of -a.
    3. Ma class inflected form of -a.

    Usage notes

    Follows adverbs to make them function as prepositions.


    Tabaa Zapotec

    Noun

    ya

    1. reed

    Tagalog

    Interjection

    ya

    1. expression used to drive cattle

    Synonyms

    Noun

    ya

    1. name and pronunciation of the last letter of the original Tagalog alphabet

    Ternate

    Etymology

    Possibly from Indonesian ya (yes).

    Pronunciation

    Interjection

    ya

    1. yes

    References

    • Rika Hayami-Allen (2001) A descriptive study of the language of Ternate, the northern Moluccas, Indonesia, University of Pittsburgh

    Tswana

    Etymology

    From Proto-Bantu *-gɪ̀a.

    Verb

    ya

    1. to go

    Turkish

    Alternative forms

    Etymology 1

    Inherited from Ottoman Turkish یا(ya), from Arabic يَا(, o, hey, you).

    Pronunciation

    Particle

    ya

    1. The Turkish vocative particle.
      Synonym: ey

    Derived terms

    Related terms

    Further reading

    Etymology 2

    Inherited from Ottoman Turkish یا(ya), from Persian یا(, either, or).

    Pronunciation

    Conjunction

    ya

    1. (informal) Expresses mild confusion.
    2. what if (used to introduce speculation about future)
      — İlahi, hocam, hiç göle maya çalmakla göl maya tutar mı? — Ya tutarsa?
      — Can a little bit of yeast ferment the great lake? — But what if it should?
    3. what about (used to ask someone to consider something or someone that they have apparently not considered)
      Poşetleri taşıması kolay. Ya bu bavullar? Onlar ne olacak?
      It's easy to carry the bags. What about the luggages? What will be of them?
    4. (preceding the last term in a list) above all, especially
      Saçları, sesi, gülüşü çok güzel. Ya gözleri.
      Her hair, her voice, her smile are all so beautiful. And especially her eyes.
    Derived terms
    Related terms

    Conjunction

    ya … ya …

    1. either … or
      Synonyms: ya … ya da, ya … yahut
      Ya bu, ya bu. İkisine birden paramız yetmez.
      either this or that. We can't afford to buy them both.
    Derived terms

    Further reading

    Etymology 3

    (This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

    Pronunciation

    Interjection

    ya

    1. aw (Used to express affection.)
      Ya, çok tatlı! Şunun yatışına bak.
      Aw, so cute! Look how's she sleeping.
    2. Expresses frustration.
      Ya yeter be, yeter!
      Enough!

    Further reading

    References

    • Parlatır, İsmail et al. (1998), “ya”, in Türkçe Sözlük, volume I, 9th edition, Ankara: Türk Dil Kurumu, page 2357a
    • Redhouse, James W. (1890), “یا”, in A Turkish and English Lexicon, Constantinople: A. H. Boyajian, page 2177

    Venda

    Etymology

    From Proto-Bantu *-gɪ̀a.

    Verb

    ya

    1. to go

    Volapük

    Etymology

    Borrowed from Spanish ya (already).

    Adverb

    ya

    1. already

    Warao

    Noun

    ya

    1. sun

    Synonyms


    White Hmong

    Etymology

    Cognate with Western Xiangxi Miao eint.

    Pronunciation

    Verb

    ya

    1. to fly

    Xhosa

    Etymology

    From Proto-Bantu *-gɪ̀a.

    Verb

    -ya

    1. (intransitive) to go to, towards

    Inflection

    This verb needs an inflection-table template.


    Yami

    Etymology

    From Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *(si-)ia, from Proto-Austronesian *(si-)ia. Compare Indonesian ia, Maori ia.

    Pronoun

    ya

    1. he; she

    Yola

    Verb

    ya

    1. simple past tense of yie
      • 1867, “A YOLA ZONG”, in SONGS, ETC. IN THE DIALECT OF FORTH AND BARGY, number 14:
        Shoo ya aam zim to doone, as w' be doone nowe;
        She gave them some to do, as we are doing now;

    References

    • Jacob Poole (1867), William Barnes, editor, A Glossary, With some Pieces of Verse, of the old Dialect of the English Colony in the Baronies of Forth and Bargy, County of Wexford, Ireland, London: J. Russell Smith, page 90

    Zulu

    Etymology

    From Proto-Bantu *-gɪ̀a.

    Verb

    -ya

    1. (intransitive) to go to, towards

    Inflection

    Tone L
    Infinitive ukuya
    Positive Negative
    Infinitive ukuya ukungayi
    Imperative
    Simple + object concord
    Singular yiya -ye
    Plural yiyani -yeni
    Present
    Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
    1st singular ngiyaya, ngiya engiyayo, engiya ngiya angiyi engingayi ngingayi
    2nd singular uyaya, uya oyayo, oya uya awuyi ongayi ungayi
    1st plural siyaya, siya esiyayo, esiya siya asiyi esingayi singayi
    2nd plural niyaya, niya eniyayo, eniya niya aniyi eningayi ningayi
    Class 1 uyaya, uya oyayo, oya eya akayi ongayi engayi
    Class 2 bayaya, baya abayayo, abaya beya abayi abangayi bengayi
    Class 3 uyaya, uya oyayo, oya uya awuyi ongayi ungayi
    Class 4 iyaya, iya eyayo, eya iya ayiyi engayi ingayi
    Class 5 liyaya, liya eliyayo, eliya liya aliyi elingayi lingayi
    Class 6 ayaya, aya ayayo, aya eya awayi angayi engayi
    Class 7 siyaya, siya esiyayo, esiya siya asiyi esingayi singayi
    Class 8 ziyaya, ziya eziyayo, eziya ziya aziyi ezingayi zingayi
    Class 9 iyaya, iya eyayo, eya iya ayiyi engayi ingayi
    Class 10 ziyaya, ziya eziyayo, eziya ziya aziyi ezingayi zingayi
    Class 11 luyaya, luya oluyayo, oluya luya aluyi olungayi lungayi
    Class 14 buyaya, buya obuyayo, obuya buya abuyi obungayi bungayi
    Class 15 kuyaya, kuya okuyayo, okuya kuya akuyi okungayi kungayi
    Class 17 kuyaya, kuya okuyayo, okuya kuya akuyi okungayi kungayi
    Recent past
    Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
    1st singular ngiyile, ngiyē engiyile, engiyē ngiyile, ngiyē angiyanga engingayanga ngingayanga
    2nd singular uyile, uyē oyile, oyē uyile, uyē awuyanga ongayanga ungayanga
    1st plural siyile, siyē esiyile, esiyē siyile, siyē asiyanga esingayanga singayanga
    2nd plural niyile, niyē eniyile, eniyē niyile, niyē aniyanga eningayanga ningayanga
    Class 1 uyile, uyē oyile, oyē eyile, eyē akayanga ongayanga engayanga
    Class 2 bayile, bayē abayile, abayē beyile, beyē abayanga abangayanga bengayanga
    Class 3 uyile, uyē oyile, oyē uyile, uyē awuyanga ongayanga ungayanga
    Class 4 iyile, iyē eyile, eyē iyile, iyē ayiyanga engayanga ingayanga
    Class 5 liyile, liyē eliyile, eliyē liyile, liyē aliyanga elingayanga lingayanga
    Class 6 ayile, ayē ayile, ayē eyile, eyē awayanga angayanga engayanga
    Class 7 siyile, siyē esiyile, esiyē siyile, siyē asiyanga esingayanga singayanga
    Class 8 ziyile, ziyē eziyile, eziyē ziyile, ziyē aziyanga ezingayanga zingayanga
    Class 9 iyile, iyē eyile, eyē iyile, iyē ayiyanga engayanga ingayanga
    Class 10 ziyile, ziyē eziyile, eziyē ziyile, ziyē aziyanga ezingayanga zingayanga
    Class 11 luyile, luyē oluyile, oluyē luyile, luyē aluyanga olungayanga lungayanga
    Class 14 buyile, buyē obuyile, obuyē buyile, buyē abuyanga obungayanga bungayanga
    Class 15 kuyile, kuyē okuyile, okuyē kuyile, kuyē akuyanga okungayanga kungayanga
    Class 17 kuyile, kuyē okuyile, okuyē kuyile, kuyē akuyanga okungayanga kungayanga
    Remote past
    Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
    1st singular ngāya engāya ngāya angiyanga engingayanga ngingayanga
    2nd singular wāya owāya wāya awuyanga ongayanga ungayanga
    1st plural sāya esāya sāya asiyanga esingayanga singayanga
    2nd plural nāya enāya nāya aniyanga eningayanga ningayanga
    Class 1 wāya owāya āya akayanga ongayanga engayanga
    Class 2 bāya abāya bāya abayanga abangayanga bengayanga
    Class 3 wāya owāya wāya awuyanga ongayanga ungayanga
    Class 4 yāya eyāya yāya ayiyanga engayanga ingayanga
    Class 5 lāya elāya lāya aliyanga elingayanga lingayanga
    Class 6 āya āya āya awayanga angayanga engayanga
    Class 7 sāya esāya sāya asiyanga esingayanga singayanga
    Class 8 zāya ezāya zāya aziyanga ezingayanga zingayanga
    Class 9 yāya eyāya yāya ayiyanga engayanga ingayanga
    Class 10 zāya ezāya zāya aziyanga ezingayanga zingayanga
    Class 11 lwāya olwāya lwāya aluyanga olungayanga lungayanga
    Class 14 bāya obāya bāya abuyanga obungayanga bungayanga
    Class 15 kwāya okwāya kwāya akuyanga okungayanga kungayanga
    Class 17 kwāya okwāya kwāya akuyanga okungayanga kungayanga
    Potential
    Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
    1st singular ngingaya ngingaya ngingeye ngingeye
    2nd singular ungaya ungaya ungeye ungeye
    1st plural singaya singaya singeye singeye
    2nd plural ningaya ningaya ningeye ningeye
    Class 1 angaya engaya angeye engeye
    Class 2 bangaya bengaya bangeye bengeye
    Class 3 ungaya ungaya ungeye ungeye
    Class 4 ingaya ingaya ingeye ingeye
    Class 5 lingaya lingaya lingeye lingeye
    Class 6 angaya engaya angeye engeye
    Class 7 singaya singaya singeye singeye
    Class 8 zingaya zingaya zingeye zingeye
    Class 9 ingaya ingaya ingeye ingeye
    Class 10 zingaya zingaya zingeye zingeye
    Class 11 lungaya lungaya lungeye lungeye
    Class 14 bungaya bungaya bungeye bungeye
    Class 15 kungaya kungaya kungeye kungeye
    Class 17 kungaya kungaya kungeye kungeye
    Immediate future
    Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
    1st singular ngizokuya engizokuya ngizokuya angizukuya engingezukuya ngingezukuya
    2nd singular uzokuya ozokuya uzokuya awuzukuya ongezukuya ungezukuya
    1st plural sizokuya esizokuya sizokuya asizukuya esingezukuya singezukuya
    2nd plural nizokuya enizokuya nizokuya anizukuya eningezukuya ningezukuya
    Class 1 uzokuya ozokuya ezokuya akazukuya ongezukuya engezukuya
    Class 2 bazokuya abazokuya bezokuya abazukuya abangezukuya bengezukuya
    Class 3 uzokuya ozokuya uzokuya awuzukuya ongezukuya ungezukuya
    Class 4 izokuya ezokuya izokuya ayizukuya engezukuya ingezukuya
    Class 5 lizokuya elizokuya lizokuya alizukuya elingezukuya lingezukuya
    Class 6 azokuya azokuya ezokuya awazukuya angezukuya engezukuya
    Class 7 sizokuya esizokuya sizokuya asizukuya esingezukuya singezukuya
    Class 8 zizokuya ezizokuya zizokuya azizukuya ezingezukuya zingezukuya
    Class 9 izokuya ezokuya izokuya ayizukuya engezukuya ingezukuya
    Class 10 zizokuya ezizokuya zizokuya azizukuya ezingezukuya zingezukuya
    Class 11 luzokuya oluzokuya luzokuya aluzukuya olungezukuya lungezukuya
    Class 14 buzokuya obuzokuya buzokuya abuzukuya obungezukuya bungezukuya
    Class 15 kuzokuya okuzokuya kuzokuya akuzukuya okungezukuya kungezukuya
    Class 17 kuzokuya okuzokuya kuzokuya akuzukuya okungezukuya kungezukuya
    Remote future
    Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
    1st singular ngiyokuya engiyokuya ngiyokuya angiyukuya engingeyukuya ngingeyukuya
    2nd singular uyokuya oyokuya uyokuya awuyukuya ongeyukuya ungeyukuya
    1st plural siyokuya esiyokuya siyokuya asiyukuya esingeyukuya singeyukuya
    2nd plural niyokuya eniyokuya niyokuya aniyukuya eningeyukuya ningeyukuya
    Class 1 uyokuya oyokuya eyokuya akayukuya ongeyukuya engeyukuya
    Class 2 bayokuya abayokuya beyokuya abayukuya abangeyukuya bengeyukuya
    Class 3 uyokuya oyokuya uyokuya awuyukuya ongeyukuya ungeyukuya
    Class 4 iyokuya eyokuya iyokuya ayiyukuya engeyukuya ingeyukuya
    Class 5 liyokuya eliyokuya liyokuya aliyukuya elingeyukuya lingeyukuya
    Class 6 ayokuya ayokuya eyokuya awayukuya angeyukuya engeyukuya
    Class 7 siyokuya esiyokuya siyokuya asiyukuya esingeyukuya singeyukuya
    Class 8 ziyokuya eziyokuya ziyokuya aziyukuya ezingeyukuya zingeyukuya
    Class 9 iyokuya eyokuya iyokuya ayiyukuya engeyukuya ingeyukuya
    Class 10 ziyokuya eziyokuya ziyokuya aziyukuya ezingeyukuya zingeyukuya
    Class 11 luyokuya oluyokuya luyokuya aluyukuya olungeyukuya lungeyukuya
    Class 14 buyokuya obuyokuya buyokuya abuyukuya obungeyukuya bungeyukuya
    Class 15 kuyokuya okuyokuya kuyokuya akuyukuya okungeyukuya kungeyukuya
    Class 17 kuyokuya okuyokuya kuyokuya akuyukuya okungeyukuya kungeyukuya
    Present subjunctive
    Positive Negative
    1st singular ngiye ngingayi
    2nd singular uye ungayi
    1st plural siye singayi
    2nd plural niye ningayi
    Class 1 aye angayi
    Class 2 baye bangayi
    Class 3 uye ungayi
    Class 4 iye ingayi
    Class 5 liye lingayi
    Class 6 aye angayi
    Class 7 siye singayi
    Class 8 ziye zingayi
    Class 9 iye ingayi
    Class 10 ziye zingayi
    Class 11 luye lungayi
    Class 14 buye bungayi
    Class 15 kuye kungayi
    Class 17 kuye kungayi
    Past subjunctive
    Positive Negative
    1st singular ngaya ngangaya, angaya, angangaya
    2nd singular waya wangaya, awaya, awangaya
    1st plural saya sangaya, asaya, asangaya
    2nd plural naya nangaya, anaya, anangaya
    Class 1 waya wangaya, akaya, akangaya
    Class 2 baya bangaya, abaya, abangaya
    Class 3 waya wangaya, awaya, awangaya
    Class 4 yaya yangaya, ayaya, ayangaya
    Class 5 laya langaya, alaya, alangaya
    Class 6 aya angaya, awaya, awangaya
    Class 7 saya sangaya, asaya, asangaya
    Class 8 zaya zangaya, azaya, azangaya
    Class 9 yaya yangaya, ayaya, ayangaya
    Class 10 zaya zangaya, azaya, azangaya
    Class 11 lwaya lwangaya, alwaya, alwangaya
    Class 14 baya bangaya, abaya, abangaya
    Class 15 kwaya kwangaya, akwaya, akwangaya
    Class 17 kwaya kwangaya, akwaya, akwangaya

    References