-er

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English

Pronunciation

Etymology 1

    Inherited from Middle English -ere, -er, from Middle English -ere, from Old English -ere, from Proto-West Germanic *-ārī, from Proto-Germanic *-ārijaz, usually thought to have been borrowed from Latin -ārius. However, Gąsiorowski suggests that *-ārijaz is a native formation; he derives it from earlier *-azrijaz, which he etymologises as a zero-grade form of *-sōr suffixed with *-ih₂, creating a suffix *-sr-ih₂ for forming feminine agent nouns, which was then masculinised by attaching *-ós. Cognate with Saterland Frisian -er, West Frisian -er, Dutch -er, German Low German -er, German -er, Danish -er, Swedish -are, Icelandic -ari.

    Compare the synonymous but unrelated Old French -or, -eor (Anglo-Norman variant -our), from Latin -(ā)tor, from Proto-Indo-European *-tōr.

    Alternative forms

    • -'er (following an abbreviation, or sometimes following a number)

    Suffix

    -er

    1. (added to verbs) A person or thing that does an action indicated by the root verb; used to form an agent noun.
      Antonym: -ee
      read + ‎-er → ‎reader
      cook + ‎-er → ‎cooker
      compute + ‎-er → ‎computer
      run + ‎-er → ‎runner
      toast + ‎-er → ‎toaster
      swim + ‎-er → ‎swimmer
      do good + ‎-er → ‎do-gooder
    2. (added to verbs, informal) A person or thing to which the root verb is done or can be done satisfactorily.
      look + ‎-er → ‎looker (an attractive person)
      keep + ‎-er → ‎keeper (a person or thing worth keeping)
    3. (added to nouns, chiefly denoting occupations) A person whose occupation is the root noun; (more broadly, occasionally with adjectives) a person characterized by the root.
      astrology + ‎-er → ‎astrologer
      baby boom + ‎-er → ‎baby boomer
      conlang + ‎-er → ‎conlanger
      cricket + ‎-er → ‎cricketer
      trumpet + ‎-er → ‎trumpeter
      zine + ‎-er → ‎ziner
    4. (added to numbers, measurements or nouns denoting quantified sets) A person or thing to which a certain number or measurement applies.
      six + ‎-er → ‎sixer
      six foot + ‎-er → ‎six-footer
      three-wheel + ‎-er → ‎three-wheeler
      first grade + ‎-er → ‎first grader
    5. (slang, chiefly entertainment, with few limitations) Used to form nouns shorter than more formal synonyms.
      percent + ‎-er → ‎percenter (commission agent)
      one hand + ‎-er → ‎one-hander (one-man show)
      oat + ‎-er → ‎oater (a Western-themed movie)
    6. (added to nouns) A person who is associated with, or supports a particular theory, doctrine, or political movement.
      birth + ‎-er → ‎birther
      flat earth + ‎-er → ‎flat-earther
      truth + ‎-er → ‎truther
      woke + ‎-er → ‎woker
    7. (added to nouns or occasionally adjectives, generally) A thing that is related in some way to the root, such as by location or purpose.
      bacon + ‎-er → ‎baconer (pig raised for bacon)
      chocolate chip + ‎-er → ‎chocolate chipper (cookie containing chocolate chips)
      sternwheel + ‎-er → ‎sternwheeler (vessel driven by a sternwheel)
    Usage notes
    • The suffix may be used to form an agent noun of many verbs. In compound or phrasal verbs, the suffix usually follows the verb component (as in passerby and runner-up) but is sometimes added at the end, irrespective of the position of the verb component (do-gooder) or is added to both components for humorous effect (washer-upper).
    • The occupational sense is often applied generally to members of a group, as in crewer (a member of a crew) and Z-lister (one on the Z-list); fans and hobbyists, as in K-popper (a fan of K-pop), and those who use a particular tool or instrument, as in JavaScripter (a programmer who uses JavaScript).
    • The entertainment slang sense is sometimes referred to as the Variety -er.
    Derived terms
    Translations

    The translations below are a guide only. For more precise translations, see specific words ending with this suffix.

    See also

    Etymology 2

    From Middle English -ere, from Old English -ware (suffix denoting residency or meaning "inhabitant of"), from Proto-West Germanic *-wari, from Proto-Germanic *warjaz (defender, inhabitant), from Proto-Indo-European *wer- (to close, cover, protect, save, defend).

    Suffix

    -er

    1. (added to a proper noun) Suffix denoting a resident or inhabitant of (the place denoted by the proper noun); used to form a demonym.
      New York + ‎-er → ‎New Yorker
      London + ‎-er → ‎Londoner
      Dublin + ‎-er → ‎Dubliner
      New England + ‎-er → ‎New Englander
    2. Suffix denoting residency in or around a place, district, area, or region.
      island + ‎-er → ‎islander
      highland + ‎-er → ‎highlander
      eastend + ‎-er → ‎eastender
    Derived terms
    Translations

    Etymology 3

    From Middle English -re, -er, from Old English -ru (plural suffix), from Proto-Germanic *-izō (plural suffix). Cognate with Dutch -er (plural ending), German -er (plural ending). See also -ren.

    Suffix

    -er

    1. (obsolete, no longer productive) Suffix used to form the plural of a small number of English nouns.
      childer, calver, lamber, linder ("loins")
    Derived terms

    Etymology 4

    From Middle English -er, representing various noun-suffixes in Old French and Anglo-Norman, variously -er, -ier and -ieur, from Latin -aris, -arius, -atorium. As a productive suffix, now merged with the occupational sense of Etymology 1.

    Suffix

    -er

    1. Person or thing connected with.
      bottle + ‎-er → ‎butler

    See also

    Etymology 5

    From Middle English -ere, from Old English -ra, from Proto-West Germanic *iʀō, *-ōʀō, from Proto-Germanic *-izô or Proto-Germanic *-ōzô (a derivative of Etymology 6, below); related to superlative -est.

    Suffix

    -er

    1. (added to certain adjectives and adverbs, now especially short ones) More; used to form the comparative.
      hard + ‎-er → ‎harder
      wet + ‎-er → ‎wetter
      fast + ‎-er → ‎faster
      strong + ‎-er → ‎stronger
    Usage notes
    • (more; used to form the comparative): Most adjectives whose comparatives are formed using the suffix -er also form their superlatives using the suffix -est.
      • Final -y preceded by a consonant becomes -i- when the suffix -er or -est is added.
        easyeasiereasiest; graygrayergrayest
      • When the stress is on the final (or only) syllable of the adjective, and this syllable ends in a single consonant preceded by a single vowel, the final consonant is doubled when the suffix is added.
        dimdimmerdimmest
      • The suffixes -er and -est may be used to form the comparative and superlative of most adjectives and adverbs that have one syllable and some that have two or more syllables.
        hothotterhottest; fastfasterfastest; funnyfunnierfunniest; sugarysugariersugariest
      • Some adjectives and adverbs form their comparatives and superlatives irregularly:
        goodbetterbest; farfartherfarthest, or farfurtherfurthest, depending on the meaning
      • The comparatives and superlatives of other adverbs and adjectives that have two or more syllables, and adjectives that are participles are formed with more and most.
        rigidmore rigidmost rigid; enormousmore enormousmost enormous; burntmore burntmost burnt; freezingmore freezingmost freezing
      • If in doubt, use more to form the comparative and most to form the superlative; for example, thirsty may become thirstier and thirstiest, but more thirsty and most thirsty are also acceptable.
    • Words ending with -ng are pronounced /ŋ/ by most dialects instead of /ŋɡ/. However, when -er or -est is added to an adjective, the /ɡ/ appears (in most dialects).
      long (/lɒŋ/) → longer (/ˈlɒŋ.ɡə(ɹ)/); young (/jʌŋ/) → youngest (/ˈjʌŋ.ɡɪst/)
    Translations

    Etymology 6

    From Middle English -er, from Old English -or, from Proto-West Germanic *-ōʀ, Proto-Germanic *-ōz.

    Suffix

    -er

    1. (added to certain adverbs) More; used to form the comparative.
    Translations

    Etymology 7

    From Middle English -eren, -ren, -rien, from Old English -erian, -rian, from Proto-West Germanic *-rōn, *-iʀōn, from Proto-Germanic *-rōną or *-izōną. Cognate with West Frisian -erje, Dutch -eren, German -eren, -ern, Danish -re, Swedish -ra.

    Suffix

    -er

    1. (added to a verb or imitative sound) Frequently; used to form frequentative verbs.
      twitter, clamber, bicker, mutter, wander, flutter, flicker, slither, smother, sputter
    Synonyms
    • (used to form frequentative): -le
    Translations
    See also

    Etymology 8

    From Middle English -er, from Anglo-Norman -er, Old French -er, the infinitive verbal ending.

    Suffix

    -er

    1. (chiefly law, added to a verb) Instance of (the verbal action); used to form nouns from verbs.
      disclaim + ‎-er → ‎disclaimer
      remit + ‎-er → ‎remitter
      misname + ‎-er → ‎misnomer
      rebut + ‎-er → ‎rebutter
      attain + ‎-er → ‎attainder
    Derived terms

    Etymology 9

    From Middle English -er, -ere (diminutive suffix). Compare -el.

    Suffix

    -er

    1. (added to a verb or noun) Used to form diminutives.
      shive + ‎-er → ‎shiver
      slive + ‎-er → ‎sliver
      splint + ‎-er → ‎splinter

    Etymology 10

      English Wikipedia has an article on:
      Wikipedia

      Attested in the UK since the 19th century. Originally Rugby School slang. Later adopted by Oxford University and then wider British society.

      Suffix

      -er

      1. (originally school slang) Used to form slang or colloquial equivalents of words.
        association + ‎-er → ‎soccer (association football)
        football + ‎-er → ‎footer (association football)
        rugby + ‎-er → ‎rugger
        Radcliffe + ‎-er → ‎Radder (a building at Oxford University)
      Derived terms
      Translations

      Etymology 11

      From Middle English -er, from Old English -er, -or, from Proto-Germanic *-raz. Compare -le.

      Suffix

      -er

      1. (now chiefly dialectal) A suffix creating adjectives from verbs, indicating aptitude, proneness, or tendency toward a specified action:
        clive + ‎-er → ‎cliver (apt to cleave or adhere to, tenacious, expert as seizing)
        slip + ‎-er → ‎slipper (tending to make slip, slippery)
        wake + ‎-er → ‎waker (tending to wake, watchful)
      Synonyms

      Etymology 12

      From Mandarin -兒-儿 (-ér).

      Suffix

      -er

      1. (Chinese literature) Junior, child, younger person. (Attached to a name, usually one syllable of the given name.)
        Li’er said hello to his father.
        • 1979, Women of China, page 44:
          Yue’er began to laugh again and her tears shimmered like dew on a lotus leaf disturbed by a breeze. Then we heard a sound. It was Man’er.
        • 2002 [1934], Xiao Hong, “The Field of Life and Death”, in Howard Goldblatt, transl., The Field of Life and Death & Tales of Hulan River, →ISBN, page 32:
          The fish was laid out on the table, but Ping’er had not come back, nor had his father.
        • 2014 [1959], Zhong Lihe, “The Little Ridge”, in T. M. McClellan, transl., From the Old Country: Stories and Sketches of China and Taiwan, →ISBN, page 202:
          Ying’er was not yet three years old. Li’er had always been the one to play with her or to carry her places on his back.
      Usage notes
      • Especially in Mandarin Chinese literature that has been translated into English, the suffix is often left untranslated in unaccented pinyin. This practice is similar to the use of -kun / -chan / -san or sensei in English-language Japanese fiction.
      • Often, an apostrophe (used to mark syllable boundaries in pinyin) is inserted before the hyphen (as in Li'er), though it can also be omitted (Yinger).
      Coordinate terms

      See also

      References

      Anagrams

      Afrikaans

      Etymology

      From Dutch -er.

      Pronunciation

      Suffix

      -er

      1. -er

      Bavarian

      Etymology

      From Middle High German -er, from Old High German -ari, from Proto-West Germanic *-ārī. Cognates include German -er and Luxembourgish -er.

      Pronunciation

      Suffix

      -er

      1. Used to form agent nouns from verbs; -er

      Derived terms

      Breton

      Pronunciation

      Suffix

      -er

      1. person or thing that (does the action indicated by the root); used to form an agent noun.
        brezhoneg (Breton (language)) + ‎-er → ‎brezhoneger (Breton-speaker)
        c'hoari (game; to play) + ‎-er → ‎c'hoarier (player, actor)
        tredan (electricity) + ‎-er → ‎tredaner (electrician)

      Derived terms

      Catalan

      Etymology

      Inherited from Latin -ārius. Compare the borrowed doublet -ari.

      Pronunciation

      Suffix

      -er m (noun-forming suffix, plural -ers)

      1. forms nouns meaning the location or object where something is usually found
        vespa (wasp) + ‎-er → ‎vesper (wasp nest)
      2. forms nouns meaning a plant which is cultivated to produce something
        garrofa (carob) + ‎-er → ‎garrofer (carob tree)
      3. forms nouns meaning the purpose of something or an object used for that purpose
        tovallola (towel) + ‎-er → ‎tovalloler (towel rail)

      Usage notes

      • The equivalent suffix -era can be used to form feminine nouns with these meanings, but usually only the masculine or feminine form will be found in Catalan.

      Suffix

      -er (adjective-forming suffix, feminine -era, masculine plural -ers, feminine plural -eres)

      1. forms nouns and adjectives referring to an inhabitant of somewhere
        Brasil (Brazil) + ‎-er → ‎brasiler (Brazilian)
      2. forms nouns and adjectives referring to engaging in a profession
        camió (truck) + ‎-er → ‎camioner (truck driver)
      3. forms nouns and adjectives referring to being prone to some activity or characteristic
        mentida (lie) + ‎-er → ‎mentider (liar, deceptive)
      4. forms relational adjectives
        llet (milk) + ‎-er → ‎lleter (milk , dairy)
        pel·lícula (film) + ‎-er → ‎pel·liculer (film , filmic, cinematic)

      Usage notes

      • Because these senses are used to form adjectives of two forms or nouns referring to animate objects, both the masculine and feminine forms will be found in Catalan, with the lemma entry found at the masculine form.

      See also

      Derived terms

      References

      Chuukese

      Pronunciation

      Suffix

      -er

      1. (added to possessive nouns) their
      2. (added to verbs as an indirect object) them

      Danish

      Suffix

      -er

      1. Forms agent nouns from verbs, with the sense "someone or something that [verb]s".
      2. Forms plural forms of many nouns.
      3. Forms the present tense of many verbs.
      4. Forms demonyms.
        Berlin + ‎-er → ‎berliner
        Paris + ‎-er → ‎pariser
      5. Forms informal action nouns from verbs.
      6. (especially definite) Forms informal abbreviations of nouns, with elision.
        hotdog + ‎-er → ‎hotter
        fjernsyn (television) + ‎-er → ‎fjerner
      7. Forms a piece of currency from numbers.
        fem (five) + ‎-er → ‎femmer (fiver, five pounds/dollars/kroner/etc.)
      8. Forms a die throw result from numbers.
        Du skal slå mindst en treer for at komme videre.
        You must throw at least a three to move on.

      Usage notes

      Senses 1 and 3 often lead to heteronymic pairs. For example, from løbe (run) comes løber (runs) (verb form) and løber (runner) (noun), distinguished by stød.

      Derived terms

      Dutch

      Alternative forms

      Pronunciation

      Etymology 1

      From Old Dutch *-āri, -ere, from Proto-Germanic *-ārijaz, borrowed from Latin -ārius. Cognate with Dutch -aar.

      Suffix

      -er m (plural -ers, feminine -ster)

      1. Forms agent nouns from verbs.
        Synonym: -aar
        hoeden + ‎-er → ‎hoeder
        spelen + ‎-er → ‎speler
      2. Forms nouns for a person associated with something.
        schip + ‎-er → ‎schipper
      Derived terms
      Descendants
      • Afrikaans: -er

      Etymology 2

      From Old Dutch *-āri, -ere, from Proto-Germanic *warjaz.

      Suffix

      -er

      1. Forms nouns denoting male inhabitants or residents of a place.
        Een Amsterdammer
        A (male) inhabitant of Amsterdam
        Synonym: -aar
      2. Formings adjectives denoting something originating from a place.
        Het Groninger museum
        The museum of Groningen
        Synonym: -s
      Antonyms
      • (antonym(s) of male inhabitant): -se (female inhabitant)
      Derived terms

      Etymology 3

      From Old Dutch -iro, -oro, from Proto-Germanic *-izô, *-ōzô.

      Suffix

      -er

      1. Forms the comparative form of adjectives.
      Derived terms
      Category Dutch adjective comparative forms not found

      Etymology 4

      From Middle Dutch -er, from Old Dutch -ro, from Proto-West Germanic *-eʀā, from Proto-Germanic *-aizōz.

      Suffix

      -er

      1. (archaic, except in fixed expressions) Used to form the (strong) feminine singular genitive.
        onverrichter zake(please add an English translation of this usage example)
        de schoonheid ener vrouwthe beauty of a woman
      2. (archaic, except in fixed expressions) Used to form the (strong) feminine singular dative.
        te goeder trouwin good faith
      Usage notes
      • Mostly encountered vestigially, such as in fixed expressions; see for example the descendants at -wijs.

      References

      1. ^ A. van Loey, "Schönfeld's Historische Grammatica van het Nederlands", Zutphen, 8. druk, 1970, →ISBN; § 175

      French

      Etymology 1

      Mainly from Latin -āre; however, the descendants of some Latin -ēre verbs also became -er verbs in French.

      Pronunciation

      Suffix

      -er

      1. forms infinitives of first-conjugation verbs
      Usage notes
      • Many of these verbs are directly descended from Latin, rather than from stem + suffix.
      • In newly formed verbs, this suffix may be preceded by a euphonic consonant /t/ after a base ending in an oral vowel to avoid hiatus. In verbs formed from bases ending in nasal vowels, /n/ is inserted and the nasal vowel is denasalized:
        agio (agio) + ‎-er → ‎agioter (to speculate)
        blabla (chit-chat) + ‎-er → ‎blablater (to chit-chat)
        bourdon (bumblebee; drone) + ‎-er → ‎bourdonner (to buzz, drone)
      Conjugation

      Etymology 2

      From Latin -āre.

      Pronunciation

      Suffix

      -er m (plural -ers)

      1. forms nouns indicating the person who exercises a particular activity
        Synonym: (female equivalent) -ère
      Derived terms

      German

      Pronunciation

      Etymology 1

      From Middle High German -ære, -er, from Old High German -āri, from Proto-West Germanic *-ārī, from Proto-Germanic *-ārijaz, further etymology unknown but possibly from Latin -ārius.

      Suffix

      -er m (strong, genitive -ers, plural -er)

      1. Forms agent nouns etc. from verbs, suffixed to the verb stem.
        arbeiten (to work) + ‎-er → ‎Arbeiter (worker)
        bohren (to drill) + ‎-er → ‎Bohrer (drill)
      2. Forms instance nouns from verbs.
        husten (to cough) + ‎-er → ‎Huster (single cough, instance of coughing)
        hüpfen (to hop) + ‎-er → ‎Hüpfer (hop, instance of hopping)
      3. Indicates something defined by a number; in the plural often all numbers with the same first digits
        16 + ‎-er → ‎16er (the 16, the 16er, e.g. a bus, a football player, etc.)
        200 + ‎-er → ‎200er (a 200, the 200s, e.g. a 200-euro note, or the list items 200 to 299, etc.)
        1990 + ‎-er → ‎1990er (1990s, the years 1990 to 1999)
      Declension
      Derived terms

      Etymology 2

      From Middle High German -er, a plural ending for some neuter nouns.

      Suffix

      -er

      1. Used to form the plurals of some nouns.
      Usage notes
      • The plural ending -er is used in a fairly large number of neuters (including all those in -tum) and a small number of masculines.

      Etymology 3

      From Middle High German -ære, -er, from Old High German -āri, from Proto-Germanic *warjaz.

      Suffix

      -er m (strong, genitive -ers, plural -er)

      1. Forms nouns indicating an inhabitant of a place, or a person originating from a place.
      Declension
      Derived terms

      Etymology 4

      Probably originated from the prepositioned genitive plural of etymology 3 above, e.g.: der Berliner Pfannkuchen = "the Berliners’ pancake", and then "the Berlin(er) pancake", reanalysed as an adjective instead of a noun and seen as being in the nominative singular (due to the ambiguity of the definite article der, which is both masculine nominative and plural genitive).

      Suffix

      -er

      1. Forms invariable adjectives from place names, with a genitival meaning, indicating origin from or association with that place.
      Usage notes
      • In contemporary German, words formed with this suffix -er are written with a capital letter (§ 61 of the official reform spelling rules as of 2018), e.g. ein Berliner Pfannkuchen. In the past, they were sometimes written with a lowercase letter like most other adjectives, e.g. ein berliner Pfannkuchen.
      • In case of placenames which are written with a space, the derived word can be written with a space or with a hyphen (§ 49 of the official reform spelling rules as of 2011), e.g. Bad SchandauBad Schandauer or Bad-Schandauer.
      • Since adjectives in -er are undeclined, they cannot normally support genitives by themselves. However, in the feminine and plural the ending -er happens to be same as that of a declined (strong) adjective and according pseudo-genitives may be encountered, such as Meldungen Berliner Zeitungen (reports of Berlin newspapers) instead of more proper Meldungen von Berliner Zeitungen. Such usage has been discouraged, but is no longer considered an error.
      Derived terms

      Etymology 5

      From Middle High German -er.

      Suffix

      -er

      1. Forms the comparative form of adjectives.
        lang + ‎-er → ‎länger
        schön + ‎-er → ‎schöner
        exakt + ‎-er → ‎exakter

      References

      1. ^ A. van Loey, "Schönfeld's Historische Grammatica van het Nederlands", Zutphen, 8. druk, 1970, →ISBN; § 175
      2. ^ Johann Christoph Adelung, Grammatisch-kritisches Wörterbuch der Hochdeutschen Mundart, vol. 1 (Leipzig, 1793), pages 1848-1852, sub verbo 4. -Er
      3. ^ Hermann Möller, Ahd. frôno (nhd. fron-) als elliptischer Plural, in the Zeitschrift für deutsche Wortforschung, volume 4 (editor Friedrich Kluge; Straßburg, 1903), page 95
      4. ^ The current official spelling rules prescribe the capital letter without further explanation and without indicating the part of speech of the words formed with the suffix (compare -isch/-sch, derivatives of which are labelled adjectives in § 62).

      Hungarian

      Etymology

      Possibly from English -er, by analogy of word pairs like blog and blogger (whose doubled final consonant is consistently pronounced long in Hungarian, as opposed to English) and/or perhaps earlier borrowed word pairs like stop and stoppol. Other existing slang terms ending in -er, like vaker, haver, sóder, might have played some role. (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

      Pronunciation

      Suffix

      -er

      1. (slang, slightly derogatory) Added to a shortened form of a noun, lengthening the first consonant following its first vowel, to derive a noun.
        kalauz (ticket inspector)kaller
        nyugdíjas (pensioner)nyugger
        mami (mommy; elderly woman)mammer
        jobboldali (rightist)jobber

      Derived terms

      See also

      Further reading

      Latin

      Pronunciation

      Suffix

      -er

      1. first-person singular present passive subjunctive of (first conjugation)

      Luxembourgish

      Etymology

      From a Proto-Germanic *-ārijaz, from Latin -ārius.

      Pronunciation

      Suffix

      -er

      1. -er (suffix used to form agent nouns from verbs)

      Derived terms

      Middle Dutch

      Etymology

      From Old Dutch -iro, -oro, from Proto-Germanic *-izô, *-ōzô.

      Suffix

      -er

      1. -er. Forms the comparative of adjectives.

      Alternative forms

      Derived terms

      See Category:Middle Dutch comparative adjectives.

      Descendants

      Middle English

      Alternative forms

      Etymology 1

        Inherited from Old English -ere, from Proto-West Germanic *-ārī, from Proto-Germanic *-ārijaz.

        Suffix

        -er

        1. forms agent nouns from nouns and verbs
          spinnen + ‎-er → ‎spynner
        Derived terms
        Descendants

        Etymology 2

        Inherited from Old English -ware, from Proto-Germanic *warjaz (dwellers of). Cognate with Old High German -āri (inhabitants of).

        Suffix

        -er

        1. forms demonyms from place names
          London + ‎-er → ‎Londoner
        Descendants

        References

        Middle French

        Alternative forms

        • -ier (typically early Middle French)

        Etymology 1

        From Old French -ier, -er, from Latin -are.

        Suffix

        -er

        1. Forms infinitives of first-conjugation verbs
        Usage notes
        • Many of these verbs are directly descended from Latin, rather than from stem + suffix
        Descendants

        Etymology 2

        From Old French -ier.

        Suffix

        -er

        1. Forms nouns, often denoting professions
          boucher
          butcher
        Descendants

        Norman

        Suffix

        -er

        1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

        Derived terms

        Northern Kurdish

        Suffix

        -er

        1. Used to form nouns referring to doer or who works on something.
          (to be) + ‎-er → ‎bûyer (event)
          destpêkirin (to start) + ‎-er → ‎destpêker (starter)

        Derived terms

        Norwegian Bokmål

        Pronunciation

        This entry needs pronunciation information. If you are familiar with the IPA then please add some!

        Etymology 1

        From Danish -er

        Suffix

        -er

        1. (added to numbers) order, position, value or similar indicated by the numeral

        Etymology 2

        From Danish -er, from Old Norse -ari, from Medieval Latin and Middle Low German words, both from Proto-Germanic *-ārijaz, from Latin -ārius.

        Suffix

        -er

        1. (added to verbs) person or thing that does an action indicated by the root verb
        2. (added to place names) person or thing that originates in the place indicated by the place name

        Etymology 3

        From Danish -er.

        Suffix

        -er

        1. suffix added to most of indefinite plural nouns, usually identical to Danish, but unlike Nynorsk and Swedish
        Derived terms

        References

        Norwegian Nynorsk

        Suffix

        -er

        1. Used to form indefinite plurals for most feminine nouns.
        2. Used to form indefinite plurals for some masculine nouns.
        3. Used to form present tense for one class of weak verbs.
        4. (obsolete) Used to form present tense for strong verbs.

        Old English

        Pronunciation

        Suffix

        -er

        1. Alternative form of -or

        Old French

        Etymology 1

        From Latin -āre.

        Suffix

        -er

        1. Alternative form of -ier, verbal suffix
        Usage notes
        • All varieties of Old French use -er but it's more common in Anglo-Norman than in France, specifically before certain consonants such as c and g.

        Etymology 2

        From Latin -ārius.

        Suffix

        -er

        1. (chiefly Anglo-Norman) Alternative form of -ier, suffix indicating a profession
          falconer, fauconer
          falconer

        Old Frisian

        Alternative forms

        Etymology

        From Proto-West Germanic *iʀ, from Proto-Germanic *iz, from Proto-Indo-European *ís. Cognates include Old High German er, Old Norse er and Gothic 𐌹𐍃 (is).

        Pronunciation

        Pronoun

        -er

        1. enclitic nominative of

        Descendants

        • Saterland Frisian: er
        • West Frisian: er

        Old Swedish

        Etymology

        From Old Norse -r.

        Suffix

        -er

        1. denotes the nominative singular of adjectives, masculine a-stem, i-stem, u-stem, and an-stem, as well as feminine ijo-stem nouns
        2. denotes the nominative and accusative plurals of r- and consonant stem nouns
          fisker
          fish
          dø̄ver
          deaf

        Polish

        Alternative forms

        Etymology

        Internationalism; compare English -er.

        Pronunciation

        Suffix

        -er m

        1. -er, creates an agent noun
          aport + ‎-er → ‎aporter

        Declension

        Animate:

        Animal:

        Inanimate:

        Derived terms

        Further reading

        • -er in Polish dictionaries at PWN

        Portuguese

        Etymology

        Inherited from Old Galician-Portuguese -er, from Latin -ēre. The short -ere of some Latin verbs was reinterpreted as either -er or -ir.

        Pronunciation

         
         

        • Rhymes: (Portugal, São Paulo) -eɾ, (Brazil) -eʁ, (Brazil, with r-dropping) -e

        Suffix

        -er (verb-forming suffix, first-person singular present -o, first-person singular preterite -i, past participle -ido)

        1. forms the infinitive of the second-conjugation verbs

        Conjugation

        Saterland Frisian

        Etymology

        From Old Frisian -ere, from Proto-West Germanic *-ārī. Cognates include West Frisian -er and German -er.

        Pronunciation

        Suffix

        -er

        1. Forms agent nouns from verbs; -er

        Declension

        Scots

        Etymology

        From Middle English -ere, from Old English -ere.

        Pronunciation

        Suffix

        -er

        1. Forms agent nouns from verbs; -er

        Spanish

        Etymology

        Inherited from Latin -ēre.

        Suffix

        -er (verb-forming suffix, first-person singular present -o, first-person singular preterite , past participle -ido)

        1. the infinitive suffix for many verbs

        Conjugation

        See also

        Swedish

        Suffix

        -er

        1. One of two suffixes for indefinite plural for nouns of the third declension (common and neuter); the second one is -r
        2. Suffix for present tense, active voice, indicative mood for one of the groups of Swedish verbs
        3. Agent noun suffix, often for loan words ending with -ik.
          matematik (mathematics) + ‎-er → ‎matematiker (mathematician)
          fysik (physics) + ‎-er → ‎fysiker (physicist)
          slarv (sloppiness, carelessness) + ‎-er → ‎slarver (someone sloppy or careless)

        See also

        plural suffix
        present tense suffix
        agent noun suffix

        Anagrams

        Turkish

        Pronunciation

        Etymology 1

        Inherited from Ottoman Turkish ـر (-r, -er), from Proto-Turkic *-ür. Cognate with Old Turkic 𐰼 ( /⁠-(e)r⁠/). Negative -mez are from Proto-Turkic *-meŕ, from Proto-Turkic *-me + *-er or *-ür (Azerbaijani -ər (indefinite future suffix)-məz, but -ir (simple present suffix)-mir).

        Suffix

        -er

        1. Simple present and aorist tense marker

        Suffix

        -er -mez

        1. as soon as
          Eve gelir gelmez duş alırım.
          As soon as I get home, I take a shower.
        Usage notes

        The suffix -r is used after verb stems ending in a vowel. Unlike most negations of tense suffixes which regularly uses the suffix -me, negative aorist suffix is -mez instead of *-mer.

        Derived terms

        Etymology 2

        Suffix

        -er

        1. Makes adjectives out of verbs
        2. Makes nouns out of verbs
          kes- (to cut) + ‎-er → ‎keser (adze)
          Yağmur diner gibi oldu.The rain seems to be stopping.

        Etymology 3

        Inherited from Ottoman Turkish ـر (-er), from Proto-Turkic .

        Suffix

        preceding vowel
        A / I / O / U E / İ / Ö / Ü
        postconsonantal -ar -er
        postvocalic -şar -şer

        -er

        1. suffix for distributive numbers
          bir + ‎-er → ‎birer
          iki + ‎-er → ‎ikişer
          dört + ‎-er → ‎dörder
          beş + ‎-er → ‎beşer
        Derived terms

        Walloon

        Pronunciation

        Suffix

        -er

        1. A verb ending for infinitives.

        Welsh

        Pronunciation

        Etymology 1

        Suffix

        -er

        1. (literary) verb suffix for the impersonal present subjunctive
        2. (literary) verb suffix for the impersonal imperative

        Etymology 2

        Borrowed from English -er.

        Suffix

        -er m

        1. suffix forming nouns
          brig (branches, sprigs, shoots) + ‎-er → ‎briger (stamens)
          tafl (sling, catapult) + ‎-er → ‎tafler (sling, catapult)
          col (awn) + ‎-er → ‎colier (awner, chobber)

        References

        1. ^ R. J. Thomas, G. A. Bevan, P. J. Donovan, A. Hawke et al., editors (1950–present), “-er”, in Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru Online (in Welsh), University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh & Celtic Studies