case

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See also: CASE, Case, casé, cáse, cåse, cåsĕ, čase, and čaše

English

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /keɪs/
  • Audio (US):(file)
  • Rhymes: -eɪs
  • Hyphenation: case

Etymology 1

From Middle English cas, from Old French cas (an event), from Latin cāsus (a falling, a fall; accident, event, occurrence; occasion, opportunity; noun case), perfect passive participle of cadō (to fall, to drop).

Noun

case (plural cases)

  1. An actual event, situation, or fact.
    For a change, in this case, he was telling the truth.
    It is not the case that every unfamiliar phrase is an idiom.
    In case of fire, break glass. [sign on fire extinguisher holder in public space]
    • 2013 July 20, “The attack of the MOOCs”, in The Economist, volume 408, number 8845:
      Since the launch early last year of […] two Silicon Valley start-ups offering free education through MOOCs, massive open online courses, the ivory towers of academia have been shaken to their foundations. University brands built in some cases over centuries have been forced to contemplate the possibility that information technology will rapidly make their existing business model obsolete.
  2. (now rare) A given condition or state.
    • 1586, William Warner, “The Fourth Booke. Chapter XXXVI.”, in Albions England. Or Historicall Map of the Same Island: , London: George Robinson for Thomas Cadman, , →OCLC, page 174:
      Thus vvhilſt he hopt he hild her leaſt, ſo altereth the cace / VVith ſuch as ſhe, Ah ſuch it is to build on ſuch a face.
    • 1590, Edmund Spenser, “Book III, Canto X”, in The Faerie Queene. , London: [John Wolfe] for William Ponsonbie, →OCLC:
      Ne wist he how to turne, nor to what place: / Was never wretched man in such a wofull cace.
    • 1726, Nathan Bailey, John Worlidge, Dictionarium Rusticum, Urbanicum & Botanicum:
      Mares which are over-fat, hold with much difficulty; whereas those that are but in good case and plump, conceive with the greatest readiness and ease.
  3. A piece of work, specifically defined within a profession; the set of tasks involved in addressing the situation of a specific person or event.
    It was one of the detective's easiest cases.  Social workers should work on a maximum of forty active cases.  The doctor told us of an interesting case he had treated that morning.
    • 1897 December (indicated as 1898), Winston Churchill, chapter II, in The Celebrity: An Episode, New York, N.Y.: The Macmillan Company; London: Macmillan & Co., Ltd., →OCLC:
      We drove back to the office with some concern on my part at the prospect of so large a case. Sunning himself on the board steps, I saw for the first time Mr. Farquhar Fenelon Cooke.
    • 1927, F. E. Penny, chapter 4, in Pulling the Strings:
      The case was that of a murder. It had an element of mystery about it, however, which was puzzling the authorities. A turban and loincloth soaked in blood had been found; also a staff. These properties were known to have belonged to a toddy drawer. He had disappeared.
  4. (academia) An instance or event as a topic of study.
    The teaching consists of theory lessons and case studies.
  5. (law) A legal proceeding; a lawsuit or prosecution.
    • 1904–1905, Baroness Orczy [i.e., Emma Orczy], “The Tremarn Case”, in The Case of Miss Elliott, London: T[homas] Fisher Unwin, published 1905, →OCLC; republished as popular edition, London: Greening & Co., 1909, OCLC 11192831, quoted in The Case of Miss Elliott (ebook no. 2000141h.html), Australia: Project Gutenberg of Australia, February 2020:
      “Two or three months more went by ; the public were eagerly awaiting the arrival of this semi-exotic claimant to an English peerage, and sensations, surpassing those of the Tichbourne case, were looked forward to with palpitating interest. []
  6. (grammar) A specific inflection of a word (particularly a noun, pronoun, or adjective) depending on its function in the sentence.
    The accusative case canonically indicates a direct object.  Latin has six cases, and remnants of a seventh.
    • 1988, Andrew Radford, chapter 6, in Transformational grammar: a first course, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, page 292:
      Now, the Subject of either an indicative or a subjunctive Clause is always assigned Nominative case, as we see from:
      (16) (a)   I know [that they/*them/*their leave for Hawaii tomorrow]
      (16) (b)   I demand [that they/*them/*their leave for Hawaii tomorrow]
      By contrast, the Subject of an infinitive Clause is assigned Objective case, as we see from:
      (17)   I want [them/*they/*their to leave for Hawaii tomorrow]
      And the Subject of a gerund Clause is assigned either Objective or Genitive case: cf.
      (18)   I don't like the idea of [them/their/*they leaving for Hawaii tomorrow]
  7. (grammar, uncountable) Grammatical cases and their meanings taken either as a topic in general or within a specific language.
    Jane has been studying case in Caucasian languages.  Latin is a language that employs case.
  8. (medicine) An instance of a specific condition or set of symptoms.
    There were another five cases reported overnight.
  9. (programming) A section of code representing one of the actions of a conditional switch.
    • 2004, Rick Miller, C++ for Artists:
      Place a break statement at the end of every case to prevent case fall-through.
    • 2011, Stephen Prata, C++ Primer Plus, page 275:
      Execution does not automatically stop at the next case.
  10. (archaic) A love affair.
    • 1867, The Young Ladies' Journal, page 467:
      Poor fellow, just as I thought! It's a case with him, anybody can see that. He is thinking about Christine, for a certainty. Lovers always take to stargazing and moonlight dreaming — it's part of their complaint.
    • 1876, The New York Drama, volumes 1-2, page 1:
      I thought it only an amourette when you told me. It was a fire — a conflagration; subdue it. I saw it was a case, and I advised you to try — dissipation.
Synonyms
Hyponyms
Derived terms
Descendants
  • Swedish: case n
Translations
The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout § Translations.

Verb

case (third-person singular simple present cases, present participle casing, simple past and past participle cased)

  1. (obsolete, intransitive) To propose hypothetical cases.

See also

References

  • (love affair): John Camden Hotten (1873) The Slang Dictionary
  • case on Wikipedia.Wikipedia

Etymology 2

From Middle English case, from Old Northern French casse, (compare Old French chasse (box, chest, case)), from Latin capsa (box, bookcase), from capiō (to take, seize, hold). Doublet of cash, chase, and chasse. Compare Spanish caja, Asturian caxa.

Noun

case (plural cases)

  1. A box that contains or can contain a number of identical items of manufacture.
  2. A box, sheath, or covering generally.
    a case for spectacles; the case of a watch
  3. A piece of luggage that can be used to transport an apparatus such as a sewing machine.
  4. An enclosing frame or casing.
    a door case; a window case
  5. A suitcase.
  6. A piece of furniture, constructed partially of transparent glass or plastic, within which items can be displayed.
  7. The outer covering or framework of a piece of apparatus such as a computer.
  8. (printing, historical) A shallow tray divided into compartments or "boxes" for holding type, traditionally arranged in sets of two, the "upper case" (containing capitals, small capitals, accented) and "lower case" (small letters, figures, punctuation marks, quadrats, and spaces).
  9. (typography, by extension) The nature of a piece of alphabetic type, whether a “capital” (upper case) or “small” (lower case) letter.
  10. (poker slang) Four of a kind.
  11. (US) A unit of liquid measure used to measure sales in the beverage industry, equivalent to 192 fluid ounces.
  12. (mining) A small fissure which admits water into the workings.
  13. A thin layer of harder metal on the surface of an object whose deeper metal is allowed to remain soft.
  14. A cardboard box that holds (usually 24) beer bottles or cans.
    Synonym: carton
    a single case of Bud Light
  15. (UK, slang, obsolete) A counterfeit crown (five-shilling coin).
    • 1859, Snowden's magistrates assistant, page 90:
      The price of a case (five shillings piece bad) from the smasher is about one shilling; an alderman (two and sixpence) about sixpence; a peg (shilling) about threepence; a downer or sprat (sixpence) about twopence.
Derived terms
Terms derived from case (noun, etymology 2)
Translations
The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout § Translations.

Adjective

case (not comparable)

  1. (poker slang) The last remaining card of a particular rank.
    He drew the case eight!
    • 2006, David Apostolico, Lessons from the Professional Poker Tour, page 21:
      If he did have a bigger ace, I still had at least six outs — the case ace, two nines, and three tens. I could also have more outs if he held anything less than A-K.
References

Verb

case (third-person singular simple present cases, present participle casing, simple past and past participle cased)

  1. (transitive) To place (an item or items of manufacture) into a box, as in preparation for shipment.
  2. (transitive) To cover or protect with, or as if with, a case; to enclose.
    • 1855–1858, William H[ickling] Prescott, History of the Reign of Philip the Second, King of Spain, volumes (please specify |volume=I to III), Boston, Mass.: Phillips, Sampson, and Company, →OCLC:
      The man who, cased in steel, had passed whole days and nights in the saddle.
  3. (transitive, informal) To survey (a building or other location) surreptitiously, as in preparation for a robbery.
    • 1977, Michael Innes, The Gay Phoenix, →ISBN, page 116:
      You are in the grounds of Brockholes Abbey, a house into which a great deal of valuable property has just been moved. And your job is to case the joint for a break in.
    • 2014, Amy Goodman, From COINTELPRO to Snowden, the FBI Burglars Speak Out After 43 Years of Silence (Part 2), Democracy Now!, January 8, 2014, 0:49 to 0:57:
      Bonnie worked as a daycare director. She helped case the FBI office by posing as a college student interested in becoming an FBI agent.
Derived terms
Translations

References

  1. ^ Edward H[enry] Knight (1877) “Case”, in Knight’s American Mechanical Dictionary. , volumes I (A–GAS), New York, N.Y.: Hurd and Houghton , →OCLC.

Further reading

Anagrams

Afar

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ħaˈse/
  • Hyphenation: ca‧se

Verb

casé (frequentative casamcasé, passive cassiimé)

  1. (transitive) wave at
  2. (transitive) strike, hit

Conjugation

    Conjugation of case (type II verb)
1st singular 2nd singular 3rd singular 1st plural 2nd plural 3rd plural
m f
perfective V-affirmative caséh castéh caséh castéh casnéh casteeníh caseeníh
N-affirmative casé casté casé casté casné castén casén
negative mácasinniyo mácasinnito mácasinna mácasinna mácasinnino mácasinniton mácasinnon
imperfective V-affirmative casáh castáh casáh castáh casnáh castaanáh casaanáh
N-affirmative casá castá casá castá casná castán casán
negative mácasa mácasta mácasa mácasta mácasna mácastan mácasan
prospective V-affirmative caséliyoh
caséyyoh
casélitoh
caséttoh
caséleh caséleh casélinoh
casénnoh
casélitoonuh
caséttoonuh
caséloonuh
N-affirmative caséliyo
caséyyo
casélito
casétto
caséle caséle casélino
casénno
caséliton
casétton
casélon
conjunctive I V-affirmative cásuh cástuh cásuh cástuh cásuh castóonuh casóonuh
N-affirmative cásu cástu cásu cástu cásu castón casón
negative casé wáyuh casé wáytuh casé wáyuh casé wáytuh casé wáynuh casé waytóonuh casé wóonuh
conjunctive II V-affirmative casánkeh castánkeh casánkeh castánkeh casnánkeh castaanánkeh casaanánkeh
N-affirmative casánke castánke casánke castánke casnánke castaanánke casaanánke
negative casé wáankeh casé waytánkeh casé wáankeh casé waytánkeh casé waynánkeh casé waytaanánkeh casé wáankeh
jussive affirmative cásay cástay cásay cástay cásay castóonay casóonay
negative casé wáay casé wáytay casé wáay casé wáytay casé wáynay casé waytóonay casé wóonay
past
conditional
affirmative casinniyóy casinnitóy casinnáy casinnáy casinninóy casinnitoonúy casinnoonúy
negative casé wanniyóy casé wannitóy casé wannáy casé wannáy casé wanninóy casé wannitoonúy casé wanninoonúy
present
conditional I
affirmative casék casték casék casték casnék casteeník caseeník
negative casé wéek casé wayték casé wéek casé wayték casé waynék casé wayteeník casé weeník
singular plural singular plural
consultative affirmative casóo casnóo imperative affirmative cás cása
negative macasóo macasnóo negative mácasin mácasina
-h converb -i form -k converb -in(n)uh converb -innuk converb infinitive indefinite participle
V-focus N-focus
cásah cási cásak casínnuh casínnuk casíyya casináanih casináan
Compound tenses
past perfect affirmative perfective + perfective of én or sugé
present perfect affirmative perfective + imperfective of én
future perfect affirmative perfective + prospective of sugé
past progressive -k converb + imperfective of én or sugé
present progressive affirmative imperfect + imperfective of én
future progressive -k converb + prospective of sugé
immediate future affirmative conjunctive I + imperfective of wée
imperfect potential I affirmative conjunctive I + imperfective of takké
imperfect
potential II
affirmative imperfective + -m + takké
negative casé + imperfective of wée + -m + takké
perfect
potential
affirmative perfective + -m + takké
negative casé + perfective of wée + -m + takké
present
conditional II
affirmative imperfective + object pronoun + tekkék
negative casé + perfective of wée + object pronoun + tekkék
perfect
conditional
affirmative perfective + imperfective of sugé + -k
negative perfective + sugé + imperfective of wée -k
irrealis casé + perfective of xaaxé or raaré

References

  • E. M. Parker, R. J. Hayward (1985) “case”, in An Afar-English-French dictionary (with Grammatical Notes in English), University of London, →ISBN
  • Mohamed Hassan Kamil (2015) L’afar: description grammaticale d’une langue couchitique (Djibouti, Erythrée et Ethiopie), Paris: Université Sorbonne Paris Cité (doctoral thesis), page 263

Asturian

Verb

case

  1. first/third-person singular present subjunctive of casar

Chinese

Alternative forms

Etymology

From English case.

Pronunciation


Noun

case (Hong Kong Cantonese)

  1. case (container; box) (Classifier: c)
  2. case (situation) (Classifier: c)
  3. case (piece of work) (Classifier: c)
  4. case (piece of work) (when associated with a file detailing the case, e.g. applications or reports) (Classifier: c)
  5. the person or client associated with such case (Classifier: c)
  6. case (legal proceeding) (Classifier: c;  c)

French

Etymology

Borrowed from Latin casa, in the sense of "hut, cabin". The other senses are a semantic loan from Spanish casa. Doublet of chez, which was inherited.

Pronunciation

Noun

case f (plural cases)

  1. (archaic, rare or regional) hut, cabin, shack
  2. box (on form)
  3. square (on board game)

Derived terms

Descendants

  • Saint Dominican Creole French: caze
    • Haitian Creole: kay

Further reading

Anagrams

Galician

Etymology 1

Attested since the 15th century (quasy), inherited from Latin quasi (as if).

Alternative forms

Pronunciation

Adverb

case

  1. almost

References

  • Xavier Varela Barreiro, Xavier Gómez Guinovart (20062018) “quasy”, in Corpus Xelmírez - Corpus lingüístico da Galicia medieval (in Galician), Santiago de Compostela: ILG
  • case” in Dicionario de Dicionarios da lingua galega, SLI - ILGA 2006–2013.
  • case” in Tesouro informatizado da lingua galega. Santiago: ILG.
  • case” in Álvarez, Rosario (coord.): Tesouro do léxico patrimonial galego e portugués, Santiago de Compostela: Instituto da Lingua Galega.

Etymology 2

Verb

case

  1. inflection of casar:
    1. first/third-person singular present subjunctive
    2. third-person singular imperative

Italian

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ˈka.ze/, (traditional) /ˈka.se/
  • Rhymes: -aze, (traditional) -ase
  • Hyphenation: cà‧se

Noun

case f

  1. plural of casa

Anagrams

Lower Sorbian

Pronunciation

Noun

case

  1. nominative/accusative plural of cas

Middle Dutch

Etymology

From Old Dutch *kāsi, from late Proto-West Germanic *kāsī, borrowed from Latin cāseus.

Noun

câse m or n

  1. cheese

Inflection

This noun needs an inflection-table template.

Alternative forms

Descendants

Further reading

Middle English

Alternative forms

Etymology

From Anglo-Norman casse, from Old French chasse, from Latin capsa.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ˈkaːs(ə)/, /ˈkas(ə)/

Noun

case (plural cases)

  1. box, chest, casket, case.

Descendants

References

Norwegian Bokmål

Etymology

English case, from Latin cāsus. Doublet of kasus.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /kɛɪ̯s/, /kæɪ̯s/

Noun

case m or n (definite singular casen or caset, indefinite plural caser, definite plural casene)

  1. a case study; a case as used in a case study

References

Norwegian Nynorsk

Etymology

English case, from Latin cāsus. Doublet of kasus.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /kɛɪ̯s/, /kæɪ̯s/

Noun

case m or n (definite singular casen or caset, indefinite plural casar or case, definite plural casane or casa)

  1. a case study; a case as used in a case study
    Synonyms: døme, eksempel

References

Old French

Noun

case oblique singularm (oblique plural cases, nominative singular cases, nominative plural case)

  1. (grammar) case

Portuguese

Pronunciation

 

Verb

case

  1. inflection of casar:
    1. first/third-person singular present subjunctive
    2. third-person singular imperative

Romanian

Noun

case

  1. inflection of casă:
    1. plural
    2. genitive/dative singular

Spanish

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ˈkase/
  • Rhymes: -ase
  • Syllabification: ca‧se

Verb

case

  1. inflection of casar:
    1. first/third-person singular present subjunctive
    2. third-person singular imperative

Swedish

Swedish Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia sv

Etymology

Borrowed from English case, from Latin cāsus. Doublet of kasus.

Noun

case n

  1. (countable) a case (instance or event as a topic of study)
    Synonym: fall

Derived terms

Venetian

Noun

case

  1. plural of casa