de

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Translingual

English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

Etymology

Symbol

de

  1. (international standards) ISO 639-1 language code for German.
    Coordinate term: deu
  2. (radio slang) from (operator), this is (operator)

English

Etymology 1

Borrowed from Russian дэ ().

Noun

de (plural des)

  1. The name of the Cyrillic script letter Д / д.

Etymology 2

Alternative forms

  • dee (Northumberland)

Verb

de (third-person singular simple present diz, present participle dein, simple past did, past participle dyun)

  1. (Northumbria) Alternative form of dee (to do).

References

  • Frank Graham (1987) The New Geordie Dictionary, →ISBN
  • Newcastle 1970s, Scott Dobson and Dick Irwin,
  • Northumberland Words, English Dialect Society, R. Oliver Heslop, 1893–4
  • A Dictionary of North East Dialect, Bill Griffiths, 2005, Northumbria University Press, →ISBN

Etymology 3

Article

de

  1. (African-American Vernacular, Bermuda, Caribbean, Jamaica) Pronunciation spelling of the.
    • 1964 [1929], William Faulkner, Sartoris (The Collected Works of William Faulkner), London: Chatto & Windus, page 22:
      “He went to’ds de back, ma’am.” The negro opened the door and slid his legs, clad in army O.D. and a pair of linoleum putties, to the ground. “‘I’ll go git ’im.”’
    • 2013 April 12, “Exclusive: Meet Derpuntae - Bermuda's first meme”, in The Bermuda Sun, archived from the original on 2022-12-12:
      So I'll prolly say de biggest threat to Bermy is de new selfish mentality like, she ank helpin no one in de end.

Etymology 4

Interjection

de

  1. A meaningless unstressed syllable used when singing a tune or indicating a rhythm.
    "Dum de dum, dum de dum", he hummed as he sauntered down the road.

Etymology 5

Borrowed from French de (of).

Preposition

de

  1. (historical) Used in the titles of French nobility; of.
    • 2009 November 5, Alex von Tunzelmann, “The Affair of the Necklace: nothing to get hot under the collar over”, in Alan Rusbridger, editor, The Guardian, London: Guardian News & Media, →ISSN, →OCLC, archived from the original on 2023-06-10:
      Conwoman Jeanne de La Motte stole a 2,800-carat diamond necklace, The Slave's Collar, by convincing the Cardinal de Rohan that Queen Marie-Antoinette wanted it.
    • 2014, Alina García-Lapuerta, La Belle Créole: The Cuban Countess Who Captivated Havana, Madrid, and Paris, Chicago, I.L.: Chicago Review Press, →ISBN, page 236:
      When Prosper Mérimée had next seen Mercedes after Spain, in March 1846, he told the Countess de Montijo that Mercedes "looked less well preserved [and] limped a little."

References

Anagrams

Albanian

Etymology

Compare Romanian di, employed with horses or oxen for the same purpose.

Interjection

de

  1. Denotes intensity, often after imperatives or some adverbs.
    Fol de!Speak!
    Ashtu de!This manner! (expressing happiness or satisfaction for the work done)
    Hë të lumtë goja, de!May thy mouth be blessed!
  2. Spurs a horse to move: giddyup

Further reading

  • de”, in FGJSH: Fjalor i gjuhës shqipe [Dictionary of the Albanian language] (in Albanian), 2006
  • “de”, in FGJSSH: Fjalor i gjuhës së sotme shqipe [Dictionary of the modern Albanian language]‎ (in Albanian), 1980

Alemannic German

Alternative forms

  • der (preconsonantic & prevocalic)
  • der (prevocalic, besides preconsonantic de)
  • d'r, dr (Bern)

Article

de

  1. (definite) the
    • 1879, Leonhard Steiner, Glärnisch-Fahrt. Gedicht in Zürcher Mundart, p. 10:
      Fründ der Natur
    • 1879, Leonhard Steiner, Glärnisch-Fahrt. Gedicht in Zürcher Mundart, p. 30:
      ; der erst und de zweit Stock
    • Dichtungen in Thurgauer Mundart. Gesammelt von O. Sutermeister, published in Zürich by Verlag von Orell Füßli & Co., I. Teil, p. 5:
      so luted der erst Atrag, wo bi der Umfrog vom Pfleger Heieri Guetchnecht vorbrocht würd.
    • Dichtungen in Thurgauer Mundart. Gesammelt von O. Sutermeister, I. Teil, p. 13:
      wo die Flüchtigkeit der Zeit den Ernst des Läbens dem Gemüeti näher bringt.
    • Dichtungen in Thurgauer Mundart. Gesammelt von O. Sutermeister, I. Teil, p. 34:
      i siner Eigeschaft als Fürst der Höll, der
    • Dichtungen in Thurgauer Mundart. Gesammelt von O. Sutermeister, I. Teil, p. 52:
      Was ihr an einem der Ärmsten und Gringste Liebes und Guets tüend,
      Das will ich achte, als heied ihr mir 's tue – so spricht jo der Heiland.
    • Dichtungen in Thurgauer Mundart. Gesammelt von O. Sutermeister, II. Teil, p. 23:
      Mach mit den ander-n acht Moß, wa d'witt;

Declension

Zürich:

Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative de
der (before a vowel)
die, d', d'- 's
(at the beginning of a sentence or verse: S')
de, d'
Genitive der
Dative dem der, de dem de
Accusative de
der (before a vowel)
de, d', d'- 's d', d'-

Thurgau:

Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative de (before a consonant, including h)
der (before a vowel, also before h)
die, de, d'- das, 's die, d'-
Genitive des der des der
Dative dem der dem de (before a consonant)
den (before a vowel)
Accusative de (before a consonant)
der (before a vowel)
den (before a vowel, less common)
die, de, d'- das, 's d'-

Asturian

Etymology

From Latin .

Preposition

de

  1. of, from

Usage notes

  • The preposition de contracts to d' before a word beginning with a vowel or h-: d'Asturies (of Asturias), d'hermanu (of a brother).

Derived terms

Bambara

Pronunciation

Particle

de

  1. emphatic particle (placed directly after the word it modifies)
    A ma i wele. A ye ne de wele
    He didn't call you. It was me that called

References

Basque

Pronunciation

Noun

de inan

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter D/d.

Declension

See also

Bavarian

Alternative forms

  • d' (unstressed form)

Etymology

Cognate with German German die.

Article

de

  1. stressed nominative/accusative singular feminine of der
  2. stressed nominative/accusative/dative plural of der

See also

Pronoun

de

  1. she, her (accusative)
  2. they, them

Synonyms

See also

Catalan

Etymology 1

Pronunciation

Noun

de f (plural des)

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter D/d.

Etymology 2

From Latin .

Pronunciation

Preposition

de (before vowel or h d')

  1. of, from

Further reading

Etymology 3

Verb

de

  1. inflection of dar:
    1. first/third-person singular present subjunctive
    2. third-person singular imperative

Cebuano

Etymology

From Spanish de.

Preposition

de

  1. (dated) of, from (only in names with Spanish origins or in phrases with Spanish construct)
    hopia de Cebu
    Cebu's hopia or hopia of/from Cebu
    Isabel biyuda de Cortes
    Isabel widow of Cortes

Related terms

Central Franconian

Pronunciation

Article

de (definite, reduced)

  1. the
    1. (most dialects) feminine nominative and accusative
    2. (most dialects) plural nominative and accusative
    3. (many dialects) plural dative
    4. (some dialects) masculine nominative
    5. (some dialects) masculine accusative
    6. (few dialects) feminine dative

Usage notes

  • (masculine): Three territories must be distinguished: 1.) Ripuarian, in which the accusative takes the form of the nominative; 2.) western Moselle Franconian, in which the nominative takes the form of the accusative; 3.) eastern Moselle Franconian, in which nominative and accusative are distinct.
1.) In Ripuarian, the reduced masculine article in nominative and accusative is de only in a few places, including Bonn; most dialects have der. The full form is always .
2.) In western Moselle Franconian, the form is de, but becomes den before vowels, h-, and dental consonants. The full form is dän.
3.) In eastern Moselle Franconian, the reduced masculine article in the nominative is de in many dialects, der in others. The full form is där. The accusative takes den (full form: dän).
  • (feminine): Virtually all dialects use de as the reduced feminine article in nominative and accusative. The full form is die. In the dative, de is used in a few dialects of Ripuarian; the general form is der. The full form may be där or .
  • (plural): Virtually all dialects use de as the reduced plural article in nominative and accusative. The full form is die. In the dative, de is used in most dialects of Ripuarian. In Moselle Franconian the form is the same as the masculine accusative (see above). The full form of the dative plural may be dä, dän, or däne.
  • Westernmost Ripuarian has no case distinction whatsoever. Only the nominative forms are relevant for these dialects.

Declension

definite article
Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural
Nominative de (some dialects, also some Ripuarian dialects; reduced)
der (some Ripuarian dialects; reduced)
(Ripuarian; full)
de (most dialects; reduced)
die (most dialects; full)
de (most dialects; reduced)
die (most dialects; full)
Genitive
Dative de (few dialects; reduced)
(Ripuarian; full)
där (Moselle Franconian; full)
de (many dialects; reduced)
(some Ripuarian dialects; full)
Accusative de (some dialects; reduced)
(Ripuarian; full)
de (most dialects; reduced)
die (most dialects; full)
de (most dialects; reduced)
die (most dialects; full)

Ripuarian (scientific transcription by Münich with ę and ꝛ ⁠):

Ripuarian definite article
Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural
Nominative de ət de
Genitive dęs (rare)
Dative dęm dę(ꝛ) dęm dę̄
Accusative de ət de
Ripuarian demonstrative pronoun
Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural
Nominative dę̄ꝛ dat
Genitive des
Dative dęm dęꝛ dęm mf dęǹə
n (fan) dęǹə
Accusative dę̄ (dęǹə) dat

Ripuarian → Kölsch (as actually used):

definite article
Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural
Nominative der, de, die, de dat, et, -'t die, de
Genitive des der des der
Dative dem der dem den
Accusative den, die, de dat, et, -'t die, de

Quotations

  • 1875, Fritz Hönig, „Geschräppels.“ Humoresken. Erster Band, p. 34:
    Ha geiht no noh'm Kobes öm Veetel op Aach,
    Verzällt imm dä ganzen Hergang der Saach.

Derived terms

  • em (en dem)

References

  • Grammatik der ripuarisch-fränkischen Mundart von Ferdinand Münch. Verlag von Friedrich Cohen, Bonn 1904, p. 138f. & 163f.

Cimbrian

Alternative forms

Article

de

  1. (Sette Comuni) the; definite article for four declensions:
    1. nominative singular feminine
    2. accusative singular feminine
    3. nominative plural
      De diarn zeint bille un de puuben noch mèeront.
      The girls are silly, and the boys even more so.
    4. accusative plural

See also

Cimbrian definite articles
Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural
Nominative dar de / di 's / z de / di
Accusative in de / di 's / z de / di
Dative me dar me in

References

  • “de” in Martalar, Umberto Martello, Bellotto, Alfonso (1974) Dizionario della lingua Cimbra dei Sette Communi vicentini, 1st edition, Roana, Italy: Instituto di Cultura Cimbra A. Dal Pozzo

Dalmatian

Etymology

From Latin .

Preposition

de

  1. of

Related terms

Danish

Etymology

From Old Danish thē, from Old Norse þeir, from Proto-Germanic *þai.

Pronunciation

Article

de pl

  1. plural definite article
    de grønne huse
    the green houses

See also

  • den (common gender singular)
  • det (neuter gender singular)

Pronoun

de (as a personal pronoun, it has the forms dem in the oblique case and deres in the genitive; as a determiner, it is uninflected)

  1. (personal pronoun) they (third-person plural)
  2. (personal pronoun, nonstandard) they (gender-neutral third-person singular)
  3. (determiner) those
    De kager smager ikke godt.
    Those cakes taste not good.
    • 2000, Mon farven har en anden lyd?: strejftog i 90'ernes musikliv og ungdomskultur i Danmark, Museum Tusculanum Press →ISBN, page 90
      De huse er meget store, både som sommerhuse og som helårshuse for de gamle hvis de flytter tilbage som pensionister uden børnene.
      Those houses are very large, both as summerhouses and all-year-houses for the old people, if they move back, being retired, without their children.
    • 2015, Lynne Graham, Claire Baxter, Den lunefulde kærlighed/Min bedste ven, min elskede, Förlaget Harlequin AB →ISBN
      De borde var normalt forbeholdt VIP'erne og arrangørerne.
      Those tables were usually reserved for the VIP's and the arrangers.

See also

Dutch

Etymology

An unstressed variety of Middle Dutch die. See die for more information.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /də/
  • (file)
  • Hyphenation: de
  • Rhymes:

Article

de

  1. the (definite article, masculine and feminine singular, plural)
    De manThe man (masculine singular)
    De vrouwThe woman (feminine singular)
    Het boekThe book (neuter singular)
    De boekenThe books (neuter plural)
    De oude man en de zee.The old man and the sea.

Usage notes

  • Placed before masculine and feminine nouns in the singular and plural nouns of all genders, indicating a specific person or thing instead of a general case.

Inflection

Dutch definite article
Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural
Nominative de de het de
Genitive des der des der
Dative den der den den
Accusative den de het de

Derived terms

Descendants

  • Afrikaans: die
  • Berbice Creole Dutch: di
  • Jersey Dutch: de
  • Skepi Creole Dutch: di, de, the

Preposition

de

  1. (informal, in restricted contexts, mostly with "man") per
    Ze namen drie biertjes de man.They took three beers per person.
    We betaalden vijftien euro de neus.We paid fifteen euros per person.

See also

Anagrams

Esperanto

Etymology

From Latin , French de, Spanish de.

Pronunciation

Preposition

de

  1. from
    Mi ne aĉetas ion ajn de ĉi tiu vendejo!
    I don't buy anything at all from this store!
  2. of, possessed by
    La aŭto de Davido estas nigra.
    David's car is black.
  3. done, written or composed by
    Synonyms: far, fare de
    Ĉu vi havas esperantan tradukon de Drakulo de Bram Stoker?
    Do you have an Esperanto translation of Dracula by Bram Stoker?
    La viro estis mordita de hundo.
    The man was bitten by a dog.

Fala

Etymology

From Old Galician-Portuguese de, from Latin (of; from).

Preposition

de

  1. of
    • 2000, Domingo Frades Gaspar, Vamus a falal: Notas pâ coñocel y platical en nosa fala, Editora regional da Extremadura, Chapter 1: Lengua Española:
      Español falan millós de persoas.
      Millions of people speak Spanish.

Usage notes

References

  • Valeš, Miroslav (2021) Diccionariu de A Fala: lagarteiru, mañegu, valverdeñu (web), 2nd edition, Minde, Portugal: CIDLeS, published 2022, →ISBN

Faroese

Noun

de n (genitive singular des, plural de)

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter D/d.

Declension

Declension of de
n4 singular plural
indefinite definite indefinite definite
nominative de deið de deini
accusative de deið de deini
dative de, dei denum deum deunum
genitive des desins dea deanna

See also

French

Etymology 1

From Middle French de, from Old French de, from Latin .

Pronunciation

Preposition

de

  1. of (expresses belonging)
    Paris est la capitale de la France.Paris is the capital of France.
    • 1837, Louis Viardot, chapter I, in L’Ingénieux Hidalgo Don Quichotte de la Manchefr.Wikisource, translation of El ingenioso hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha by Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra:
      Dans une bourgade de la Manche, dont je ne veux pas me rappeler le nom, vivait, il n’y a pas longtemps, un hidalgo ....
      In a village of La Mancha, whose name I do not want to remember, lived, not long ago, an hidalgo ....
  2. of (used to express property or association)
    Œuvres de FermatFermat’s Works
    Elle est la femme de mon ami.She is my friend’s wife.
    le voisin de GabrielGabriel's neighbor
  3. from (used to indicate origin)
    Elle vient de France.She comes from France.
    Êtes-vous de Suisse ?Are you from Switzerland?
    Ce fromage vient d’Espagne.This cheese is from Spain.
    C’est de l’ouest de la France.It’s from the west of France.
    Le train va de Paris à Bordeaux.The train goes from Paris to Bordeaux.
  4. of (indicates an amount)
    5 kilos de pommes.5 kilograms of apples.
    Un verre de vinA glass of wine
    Une portion de fritesA portion of fries
  5. used attributively, often translated into English as a compound word
    Un jus de pommeApple juice
    Un verre de vinA glass of wine
    Une boîte de nuitA nightclub
    Un chien de gardeA guarddog
    Une voiture de sportA sportscar
    Un stade de footballA football stadium
  6. from (used to indicate the start of a time or range)
    De 9:00 à 11:00 je ne serai pas libre.From 9 to 11 I won’t be free.
    Je travaille de huit heures à midi.I work from 8 o'clock to noon.
    un groupe de cinq à huit personnesa group of five to eight people
  7. used after certain verbs before an infinitive, often translated into English as a gerund or an infinitive
    J’ai arrêté de fumer.I stopped smoking.
    Il continue de m’embêter.He keeps annoying me.
    Elle m’a dit de venir.She told me to come.
    Nous vous exhortons de venir.We urge you to come.
  8. by (indicates the amount of change)
    Boire trois tasses par jour réduirait de 20 % les risques de contracter une maladie.Drinking three cups a day would reduce the risks of catching an illness by 20%.
Usage notes

Before a word beginning with a vowel sound, de elides to d’. Before the article le, it contracts with the article into du. Before the article les, it contracts with the article into des.

Le Songe d’une nuit d’été’A Midsummer Night’s Dream (literally, “The Dream of a night of summer”)
La queue du chienThe dog’s tail
Index des auteursIndex of the authors

Article

de (indefinite)

  1. Used in the plural with prepositioned adjectives.
    Ce sont de bons enfants.They are good children.
    Il y a d’autres exemples.There are other examples.
  2. Used in negated sentences with the grammatical object.
    Elle n’a pas de mère.She doesn’t have a mother.
    Il ne mange pas de viande.He doesn’t eat meat.
    Il n’y a pas de problèmes.There are no problems.
Usage notes
  • In negative sentences, de often replaces the indefinite (un, une and des) and partitive articles (du, de la, des). However, there are situations where the indefinite or partitive articles are retained. For example:
    • when the nominal element is an attributive complement to the negated verb être
      Il n’est pas un menteur.He isn't a liar.
    • when the complement of the negated verb is followed by a contradistinctive element (not X, but Y)
      Il ne mange pas de viande.He doesn't eat meat.
      Il ne mange pas de la viande, mais du pain.He doesn't eat meat, but bread.
Derived terms

Etymology 2

Pronunciation

Noun

de f (plural des)

  1. Abbreviation of dame.
See also

References

Anagrams

Galician

Etymology

From Latin .

Pronunciation

Preposition

de

  1. of, from
    Veño de Lugo.
    (please add an English translation of this usage example)
  2. of; -'s (belonging to)
    Socorro é a avoa de Clara e de Daniel.
    Socorro is Clara and Daniel's grandmother

Usage notes

The preposition de contracts to d- before articles, before third-person tonic pronouns, and before the determiners algún and outro.

Derived terms

of/from + the
- Singular Plural
Masculine do dos
Feminine da das
of/from + third-person pronoun
- Singular Plural
Masculine del deles
Feminine dela delas

Further reading

Haitian Creole

Etymology

From French deux (two).

Pronunciation

Numeral

de

  1. two

Hungarian

Etymology

For the adverbial use, compare Polish ale.

Pronunciation

Adverb

de (not comparable)

  1. how!, very much
    Synonyms: (dated, poetic) be, milyen, mennyire
    De szép ez a ház!Oh, how beautiful that house is!

Conjunction

de

  1. but
    Synonyms: viszont, azonban, ám, ugyanakkor, ellenben
  2. (oh) yes!, surely! (used as a positive contradiction to a negative statement)
    Synonym: de igen
    Nem voltál itt! – De ott voltam.You weren’t here! – Yes I was!

Derived terms

Compound words
Expressions

See also

Further reading

  • (adverb): de in Bárczi, Géza and László Országh. A magyar nyelv értelmező szótára (‘The Explanatory Dictionary of the Hungarian Language’, abbr.: ÉrtSz.). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1959–1962. Fifth ed., 1992: →ISBN
  • (conjunction): de in Bárczi, Géza and László Országh. A magyar nyelv értelmező szótára (‘The Explanatory Dictionary of the Hungarian Language’, abbr.: ÉrtSz.). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1959–1962. Fifth ed., 1992: →ISBN
  • de in Ittzés, Nóra (ed.). A magyar nyelv nagyszótára (‘A Comprehensive Dictionary of the Hungarian Language’). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 2006–2031 (work in progress; published A–ez as of 2024)

Hunsrik

Alternative forms

  • te (Wiesemann spelling system)

Etymology

From Middle High German der, from Old High German der, ther, replacing the original masculine and feminine nominative forms from Proto-Germanic *sa, by analogy with the adjective inflection.

Pronunciation

Article

de (definite)

  1. inflection of där:
    1. unstressed nominative/accusative singular masculine
    2. unstressed dative singular feminine
    3. unstressed dative plural all genders

Declension

Further reading

Ido

Pronunciation

Etymology 1

Borrowed from French de and Spanish de.

Preposition

de

  1. from (indicating departure, dependency, starting point, origin or derivation)
    Me kompris la frukti de la merkato.
    I bought the fruits from the market.
  2. of (with a noun: indicating measurement, quantity, amount, content)
    Me esis un de kin en la konkurso.
    I was one of five in the competition.
    Me prizas tre multe tasego de kafeo ye la matino.
    I really like a big cup of coffee in the morning.
  3. of (with an adjective: indicating measurement, dimension)
    Me havas tri boteli plena de aquo.
    I have three bottles of water.
  4. with a title of nobility
    Rejio de Anglia
    Queen of England
Antonyms
  • ad (to)
  • til (until, till)
Derived terms
Related terms
  • di (of (indicates possession or association))
  • da (by)
See also
  • ek (out of, out from)

Etymology 2

From d +‎ -e.

Noun

de (plural de-i)

  1. The name of the Latin script letter D/d.
See also

Indonesian

Etymology

From Dutch dee.

Pronunciation

Noun

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter D/d.

Synonyms

  • di (Standard Malay)

See also

Further reading

Interlingua

Preposition

de

  1. from
  2. since
  3. of
  4. with
  5. by means of
  6. to
  7. for

Irish

Etymology 1

From Old Irish di (of, from).

Alternative forms

  • d’ (used before a vowel sound)

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /dʲɛ/, /dʲə/
  • (Galway) IPA(key): /ɡə/
  • (Ulster, colloquial) IPA(key): /ə/, (before ⟨a/á, o/ó, u/ú⟩) /ə.ɣ-/, (before ⟨e/é, i/í⟩) /ə.j-/

Preposition

de (plus dative, triggers lenition, used only before consonant sounds)

  1. from
  2. of
Inflection
Derived terms

See also: Category:Irish phrasal verbs with particle (de)

Etymology 2

From Old Irish de (of/from him).

Alternative forms

Pronunciation

Pronoun

de (emphatic desean)

  1. third-person singular masculine of de

References

  1. ^ Quiggin, E. C. (1906) A Dialect of Donegal, Cambridge University Press, page 73
  2. ^ Quiggin, E. C. (1906) A Dialect of Donegal, Cambridge University Press, page 19

Further reading

Italian

Contraction

de

  1. Apocopic form of del
    Michael Radford è il regista de "Il postino".Michael Radford is the director of "Il Postino".

Usage notes

De is used where del, della, etc, would ordinarily be used, but cannot be because the article is part of the title of a film, book, etc.

See also

Anagrams

Jamaican Creole

Etymology 1

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Particle

de

  1. present progressive tense marker used before verbs
    Im de kom.
    She is coming.
    Torkl de swim.
    The turtle is swimming.
    Pikni dem de nyam di fuud.
    The children are eating food.

Etymology 2

Derived from English there.

Adverb

de

  1. there
    uova de
    over there

See also

Further reading

Japanese

Romanization

de

  1. The hiragana syllable (de) or the katakana syllable (de) in Hepburn romanization.

Jersey Dutch

Etymology

From Dutch de (the). Cognates include Afrikaans die.

Pronunciation

Article

de

  1. the
    • 1912, Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsche taal— en letterkunde, volumes 31-32, page 309:
      De v'lôrene zön
      The prodigal (literally "lost") son

Ladin

Etymology

From Latin .

Preposition

de

  1. of, from

Derived terms

Ladino

Preposition

de (Latin spelling, Hebrew spelling די)

  1. of
    • 2019, Silvyo OVADYA, “Hanukah Alegre”, in Şalom Gazetesi:
      Alhad la noche vamos a asender la primera kandela de muestras Hanukiyas.
      Sunday night we're going to light the first candle of our Hanukiyas.
  2. from

Lashi

Etymology 1

From Proto-Lolo-Burmese , from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *daj (do, make). Cognates include Ao da (do) and Lahu te (do).

Pronunciation

Verb

de

  1. (transitive) to build

Etymology 2

Pronunciation

Noun

de

  1. wealth

References

  • Hkaw Luk (2017) A grammatical sketch of Lacid, Chiang Mai: Payap University (master thesis)

Latin

Etymology 1

From Etruscan. Etruscan names of stops were the stop followed by /eː/.

Pronunciation

Noun

 f (indeclinable)

  1. The name of the letter D.
Coordinate terms

Etymology 2

From Proto-Italic *dē, from an instrumental singular form of Proto-Indo-European *de. Also in suffixes -dam, -dum, -de, -dō (e.g. quondam, inde, unde, quandō), dōnec, Ancient Greek δέ (), δή (dḗ), English to.

All 3 ablative senses are from the PIE ablative of cause, origin, and separation.

Pronunciation

Preposition

(+ ablative)

  1. of, concerning, about
    actum est de aliquoIt is over for someone, someone's fate is sealed
    de rebus mathematicisconcerning mathematical things
    • (Can we date this quote?), Finnur Jónsson, Historia Ecclesiastica Islandiæ, page 1:
      De introductione religionis Christianæ in Islandiam.
      Of the introduction of Christianity to Iceland.
  2. from, away from, down from, out of; in general to indicate the person or place from which any thing is taken, etc., with verbs of taking away, depriving, demanding, requesting, inquiring, buying; as capere, sumere, emere, quaerere, discere, trahere, etc., and their compounds.
    emere de aliquoto buy from someone
    aliquid mercari de aliquoto buy something from someone
    Saepe hoc audivi de patre.I have often heard this from Father.
    De mausoleo exaudita vox est.A voice was heard from the mausoleum.
    Ut sibi liceret discere id de me...Just as he himself permitted for me to learn...
    Hamum de cubiculo ut e navicula jacere.(please add an English translation of this usage example)
    Brassica de capite et de oculis omnia (mala) deducet.(please add an English translation of this usage example)
    De digito anulum detraho.From the finger I pull the ring.
    de matris complexu aliquem avellere atque abstrahereto rip someone away from the embrace of their mother and drag them away
    Nomen suum de tabula sustulit.He removed his name from the tablet.
    Ferrum de manibus extorsimus.We tore the sword from their hands.
    Juris utilitas vel a peritis vel de libris depromi potest.The utility of a law is able to be produced either from an expert or from books.
    de caelo aliquid demittereto bring down something from the sky
    1. with petere, of a place
      De vicino terra petita solo.(please add an English translation of this usage example)
    2. (Late Latin) of persons
      Peto de te.I beg of thee.
  3. from, away from, to indicate the place from which someone or something departs or withdraws.
    Animam de corpore mitto.I release the spirit from the body.
    Aliquo quom jam sucus de corpore cessit.Somehow the spirit has already passed somewhere from the body.
    Civitati persuasit, ut de finibus suis cum omnibus copiis exirent.He persuaded the people to go forth from their territories with all their possessions.
    decedere de provinciato retire from office
    de vita decedereto withdraw from life
    exire de vitato exit out of life (compare excedere e vita)
    de triclinio, de cubiculo exireto go out from the triclinium, from the cubiculum
    de castris procedereto proceed out of the military camps
    Decido de lecto praeceps.I fall down from the bed headlong.
    de muro se deicereto throw oneself down from the wall
    de sella exsilireto jump from the stool
    nec ex equo vel de muro etc., hostem destinareto aim at the enemy from neither the horse nor the wall
    De altera parte tertia Sequanos decedere juberet.He ordered the Sequani to withdraw from another third part.
  4. (particularly coins) over, in reference to the people subjugated when celebrating a Roman victory
    de Germanisover the Germans
    de Britannisover the Britons
Usage notes
  • denotes the going out, departure, removal, or separating of an object from any fixed point (it occupies a middle place between ab (away from) which denotes a mere external departure, and ex (out of) which signifies from the interior of a thing). Hence verbs compounded with are constructed not only with , but quite as frequently with ab and ex; and, on the other hand, those compounded with ab and ex often have the terminus a quo indicated by .

References

  • de in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • de in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • de in Charles du Fresne du Cange’s Glossarium Mediæ et Infimæ Latinitatis (augmented edition with additions by D. P. Carpenterius, Adelungius and others, edited by Léopold Favre, 1883–1887)
  • de in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré latin-français, Hachette.
  • de in Enrico Olivetti, editor (2003-2024), Dizionario Latino, Olivetti Media Communication
  • Arthur E. Gordon, The Letter Names of the Latin Alphabet (University of California Press, 1973; volume 9 of University of California Publications: Classical Studies), part III: “Summary of the Ancient Evidence”, page 32: "Clearly there is no question or doubt about the names of the vowels A, E, I, O, U. They are simply long A, long E, etc. (ā, ē, ī, ō, ū). Nor is there any uncertainty with respect to the six mutes B, C, D, G, P, T. Their names are bē, cē, dē, gē, pē, tē (each with a long E). Or about H, K, and Q: they are hā, kā, kū—each, again, with a long vowel sound."
  1. ^ (2012) The Unicode Consortium, The Unicode Standard: Version 6.1 – Core Specification. →ISBN, page 468; citing: (1985) Geoffrey Sampson, Writing Systems: A Linguistic Introduction, Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. →ISBN.
Derived terms
Descendants

Ligurian

Pronunciation

Etymology 1

From Latin .

Preposition

de

  1. of
  2. from
de + article Combined form
de + o do
de + a da
de + i di
de + e de

Etymology 2

de (of, from, preposition) + e (the (fem. plur.), article)

Contraction

de

  1. of the, from the (followed by a plural feminine noun)

Lombard

Etymology 1

From Old Lombard de, from Latin .

Preposition

de

  1. from
  2. by, of

Etymology 2

Noun

de

  1. (Cremish) Alternative form of

References

  • Bonifacio, Samarani (1852) Vocabulario cremasco-italiano (in Italian), Crema

Louisiana Creole

Louisiana Creole cardinal numbers
 <  1 2 3  > 
    Cardinal : de
    Ordinal : sègon
    Multiplier : doub
    Collective : toulédé

Etymology

Inherited from French deux (two).

Pronunciation

Numeral

de

  1. Alternative form of (two)

Low German

Alternative forms

  • dee (for the pronoun)
  • dei
  • de, (´ denoting a raising of the voice), (` denoting a swallow up or shorting) (all three used together; Grafschaft Bentheim)

Etymology

From Middle Low German , from Old Saxon thē.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /deː/, /deɪ/, /dɛɪ̯/

Article

de m or f (neuter dat, plural de)

  1. the
    De Mann gat hen.The man walks there.
    De Fru geiht hen.The woman walks there.
    dat Sakramänt der Eihe (Paderbornisch)the sacrament of marriage

Usage notes

  • Dative and accusative are sometimes called 'object case'. However, most (if not all) dialects have not actually merged these two.
  • There is the only plural article and like English 'the' is used for nouns of every gender and class. Indefinite nouns in plural are used without article, again as in English.

Declension

Sg. m. Sg. f. Sg. n. Pl.
Nom. de de dat de
Gen. des der der
Dat. dem
den
der
de
den
Acc. den de dat de

Pronoun

de m or f (neuter dat)

  1. (relative) which, that
    de Mann, de dår güngthe man, which walked there
    de Mann, den wi hüert häbbenthe man, which we hired
    de Fru, de wi hüert hębbenthe woman, which we have hired
    dat Schipp, dat wi sailt hębbenthe ship that we have sailed

Usage notes

  • The use as a relative pronoun might not be present in all dialects.

Declension

Sg. m. Sg. f. Sg. n. Pl.
Nom. de de dat de
Gen.
Dat.
Acc. den de dat de

Luxembourgish

Pronunciation

Pronoun

de

  1. unstressed form of du

Declension

Mandarin

Romanization

de (de5de0, Zhuyin ˙ㄉㄜ)

  1. Hanyu Pinyin reading of
  2. Hanyu Pinyin reading of
  3. Hanyu Pinyin reading of
  4. Hanyu Pinyin reading of
  5. Hanyu Pinyin reading of
  6. Hanyu Pinyin reading of 𠵨
  7. Hanyu Pinyin reading of

Romanization

de

  1. Nonstandard spelling of .
  2. Nonstandard spelling of .
  3. Nonstandard spelling of .
  4. Nonstandard spelling of dê̄.

Usage notes

  • Transcriptions of Mandarin into the Latin script often do not distinguish between the critical tonal differences employed in the Mandarin language, using words such as this one without indication of tone.

Mauritian Creole

Mauritian Creole cardinal numbers
 <  1 2 3  > 
    Cardinal : de
    Ordinal : deziem
    Adverbial : ledoub

Etymology

From French deux.

Pronunciation

Numeral

de

  1. two

Derived terms

Middle Dutch

Article

de

  1. inflection of die:
    1. masculine nominative singular
    2. feminine nominative/accusative singular
    3. nominative/accusative plural

Middle English

Etymology 1

Pronoun

de

  1. Alternative form of þe (thee)

Etymology 2

Noun

de

  1. Alternative form of dee

Middle French

Preposition

de

  1. of
  2. from

Mirandese

Etymology

From Latin .

Preposition

de

  1. of, from
    Pertual ye un paíç localizado ne l sudoeste de la Ouropa.Portugal is a country located in the south-west of Europe.

Mòcheno

Etymology

From Middle High German diu, from Old High German diu, from Proto-Germanic *þō, an alteration of *sō. Cognate with German die, obsolete English tho.

Article

de (singular masculine der, singular neuter s)

  1. the, nominative singular feminine definite article
  2. the, nominative plural definite article

References

Northern Kurdish

Postposition

de

  1. an element of several circumpositions

Related terms

Northern Ndebele

Etymology

From Proto-Bantu *-dàì.

Adjective

-de

  1. tall

Inflection

Adjective concord, tone L
Modifier Copulative
1st singular engimude ngimude
2nd singular omude umude
1st plural esibade sibade
2nd plural elibade libade
Class 1 omude mude
Class 2 abade bade
Class 3 omude mude
Class 4 emide mide
Class 5 elide lide
Class 6 amade made
Class 7 eside side
Class 8 ezinde zinde
Class 9 ende inde
Class 10 ezinde zinde
Class 11 olude lude
Class 14 obude bude
Class 15 okude kude
Class 17 okude kude

Northern Sami

Etymology

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation

Conjunction

de

  1. then, after that
  2. then, in that case

Further reading

  • Koponen, Eino, Ruppel, Klaas, Aapala, Kirsti, editors (2002–2008), Álgu database: Etymological database of the Saami languages, Helsinki: Research Institute for the Languages of Finland

Adverb

de

  1. yes

Norwegian Bokmål

Pronunciation

Article

de

  1. definite article, equivalent to "the", used before adjectives used with plural nouns; also used before adjectives converted to nouns. Usually capitalised as "De" when used in proper nouns.

Related terms

Pronoun

de (accusative dem, genitive deres)

  1. they
  2. those

See also

References

Norwegian Nynorsk

Etymology 1

From Old Norse þér, ér and þit, it. From a variant of Proto-Germanic *jūz, from Proto-Indo-European *yū́.

Alternative forms

Pronunciation

Pronoun

de (objective case dykk, possessive dykkar)

  1. you (second-person plural)
Synonyms

See also


Etymology 2

From French de, Latin .

Preposition

de

  1. used in set expressions (such as de jure); translates to "from" and "of"

Etymology 3

Pronoun

de

  1. (Midlandsnormalen or eye dialect) alternative spelling of det n (that, it)

Article

de n

  1. (Midlandsnormalen or eye dialect) alternative spelling of det n (that, it)

Etymology 4

Pronoun

de

  1. (dialectal or eye dialect, Trøndelag, Eastern Norway) pronunciation spelling of deg

References

  • “de” in The Nynorsk Dictionary.
  • “de” in Ivar Aasen (1873) Norsk Ordbog med dansk Forklaring
  • Ivar Aasen (1850) chapter DID, in Ordbog over det norske Folkesprog (in Danish), Oslo: Samlaget, published 2000

Nupe

Pronunciation

Verb

de

  1. to have
    Mi de etun àI don't have a job

Occitan

Etymology 1

Inherited from Latin .

Preposition

de

  1. of
  2. from
Alternative forms
  • d' (before a vowel)

Etymology 2

Noun

de f (plural des)

  1. dee (the letter d, D)

Old French

Etymology

Latin .

Preposition

de

  1. of
  2. from

Usage notes

  • before a vowel, either remains as a separate word or becomes d'

Derived terms

Descendants

  • Middle French: de
    • French: de

Old Galician-Portuguese

Alternative forms

  • d- (elided form when followed by a word which begins with a vowel)
  • D- (elided form when followed by a capitalised word which begins with a vowel)

Etymology

From Latin (of; from).

Pronunciation

Preposition

de

  1. of

Descendants

  • Fala: de
  • Galician: de
  • Portuguese: de

Old Irish

Pronunciation

Preposition

de

  1. Alternative form of di (of, from)
    • c. 845, St Gall Glosses on Priscian, published in Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus (reprinted 1975, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies), edited and with translations by Whitley Stokes and John Strachan, vol. II, pp. 49–224, Sg. 26b7
      De dliguth trá inna n-il-toimdden sin, is de gaibthi “igitur”; quasi dixisset “Ní fail ní nád taí mo dligeth-sa fair i ndegaid na comroircnech.”
      Of the law then, of those many opinions, it is thereof that he recites “igitur”; as if he had said, “There is nothing which my law does not touch upon after the erroneous ones.

Pronoun

de

  1. third-person singular masculine/neuter of di (of, from)
    • c. 845, St Gall Glosses on Priscian, published in Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus (reprinted 1975, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies), edited and with translations by Whitley Stokes and John Strachan, vol. II, pp. 49–224, Sg. 26b7
      De dliguth trá inna n-il-toimdden sin, is de gaibthi “igitur”; quasi dixisset “Ní fail ní nád taí mo dligeth-sa fair i ndegaid na comroircnech.”
      Of the law then, of those many opinions, it is thereof that he recites “igitur”; as if he had said, “There is nothing which my law does not touch upon after the erroneous ones.
  2. Used after the comparative degree of an adjective in the meaning of English the before a comparative
    lía dethe more (literally, “more of it”)
    • c. 800–825, Diarmait, Milan Glosses on the Psalms, published in Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus (reprinted 1987, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies), edited and with translations by Whitley Stokes and John Strachan, vol. I, pp. 7–483, Ml. 23d23
      Cía thés hí loc bes ardu, ní ardu de; ní samlid són dúnni, air ⟨im⟩mi ardu-ni de tri dul isna lucu arda.
      Though he may go into a higher place, he is not the higher; this is not the case for us, for we are the higher through going into the high places.
      (literally, “Though he may go into a place that is higher, he is not higher of it; this is not thus for us, for we are higher of it through going into the high places.”)

Old Occitan

Etymology

From Latin .

Preposition

de

  1. of
  2. from

Pennsylvania German

Etymology

Compare German den.

Pronunciation

Article

de pl (definite)

  1. dative plural of der (the)

Declension

Pennsylvania German definite articles
Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural
Nominative der die es die
Dative dem or em der dem or em de
Accusative der or den die es die

Pronoun

de

  1. you

Declension

Phalura

Etymology

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation

Verb

de (auxiliary, Perso-Arabic spelling دےۡ)

  1. Past tense marker

References

  • Liljegren, Henrik, Haider, Naseem (2011) Palula Vocabulary (FLI Language and Culture Series; 7)‎, Islamabad, Pakistan: Forum for Language Initiatives, →ISBN

Polish

Etymology

From the first letter of dupa.

Pronunciation

Noun

de n (indeclinable)

  1. (minced oath) ass, arse, butt

Further reading

  • de in Polish dictionaries at PWN

Portuguese

Alternative forms

Etymology

From Old Galician-Portuguese de (of), from Latin (of).

Pronunciation

 

  • (Nordestino) IPA(key): /di/
  • (Caipira) IPA(key): /di/
  • Hyphenation: de

Preposition

de

  1. of (in relation to)
    os amigos dele
    his friends
    (literally, “the friends of him”)
    1. of (forms compounds; often untranslated)
      fones de ouvido
      headphones
      (literally, “phones of ear”)
      acampamento de verão
      summer camp
    2. of; about (on the subject of)
      Do que estavam falando?
      What were they talking about?
    3. of; -'s (belonging to)
      a casa de alguém
      someone's house
    4. -'s (made by)
      Você provou o bolo da minha mãe?
      Have you tried my mother’s cake?
    5. of (being a part of)
      capa do livro
      cover of the book
    6. of (introduces the month a given day is part of)
      Primeiro de janeiro.
      First of January.
    7. of (introduces the object of an agent noun)
      Hitler foi um exterminador de judeus.
      Hitler was an exterminator of Jews.
    8. of (introduces the name of a place following its hypernym)
      A vila de Iorque.
      The village of York.
  2. of; -en (made or consisting of)
    De que é feito?
    What is this made of?
    (literally, “Of what is made this?”)
    1. -long (having the duration of)
      um filme de duas horas
      a two hour-long movie
    2. of (indicates the composition of a given collective or quantitative noun)
      Milhares de pessoas vieram.
      Thousands of people came.
    3. of (characterised by; having the given quality)
      O templo não é mais um local de paz.
      The temple is no longer a place of peace.
  3. of (introduces the noun that applies a given adjective or past participle)
    Um balde cheio de água.
    A bucket full of water.
  4. from (born in or coming out of)
    De onde você é?
    Where are you from?
  5. by means of; by
    Eu sempre vou trabalhar de ônibus.
    I always go to work by bus.
  6. as (in the role of)
    Na festa, ele estava de bruxo.
    At the party, he was dressed as a wizard.
  7. in (wearing)
    Homens de Preto
    Men in Black

Usage notes

When followed by an article, a pronoun, a demonstrative pronoun or adjective, or an adverb denoting location, de is combined with the next word to give the following combined forms:

Quotations

For quotations using this term, see Citations:de.

Romanian

Alternative forms

Etymology

From Latin .

Pronunciation

Conjunction

de

  1. (informal or literary) if
    Synonyms: dacă (most usual), (relatively uncommon)
  2. (with the optative mood) if only
  3. (informal) that (to the effect that)
    Synonyms: încât, (informal)
    Am așteptat de ne-am plictisit.
    We waited that we got bored.
    Cum a jucat echipa de a pierdut așa de rău?
    How did the team play to lose so badly?
    E o căldură de nu ar ieși nimeni din casă.
    There’s heat that no one would go outside.
    Mașina a demarat de i-au scârțâit cauciucurile.
    The car sped off that its tyres screeched.
    Am bani de nu știu ce să fac cu ei.
    I have money that I don’t know what to do with it.
  4. (archaic) while (whereas, despite the fact that)
    Synonyms: chiar dacă, deși, cu toate că

Usage notes

In the meaning of “if”, de is not typically directly followed by any word other than a verb, a pronoun (accusative or reflexive, but not nominative) or the word nu (no). The more common and style-neutral dacă is under no such restrictions.

As an informal synonym of încât, de is used in simple constructions without any coordinative adverbs like atât, așa (so); therefore, a part of the sentence (“so much”, “so hard”, etc.) is missing and must be inferred. Încât and , while equivalent in meaning, require a coordinative adverb and so are not readily interchangeable with de.

Preposition

de (+accusative)

  1. of
    Beau o ceașcă de ceai.
    I’m drinking a cup of tea.
    Este profesor de matematică
    He’s a teacher of mathematics.
  2. (before spatial adverbs and prepositions) Indicates source of motion: from.[usage note 1]
    Apa picură de sus.
    The water drips from above.
    De unde vine sunetul?
    Where does the sound come from?
    Gloanțele acestea nu sunt bune decât de aproape.
    These bullets are only good from a short distance.
    Seara la ora de vârf toată lumea se întoarce de la serviciu.
    In the evening during rush hour everybody is returning from work.
    Ia plasa de lângă radiator! O să se topească!
    Take the bag away from near the heater! It will melt!
    O foaie de hârtie poate fi trasă repede de sub un pahar.
    A sheet of paper can be quickly pulled from under a glass.
  3. (before spatial adverbs and prepositions) Indicates source of origin: from.[usage note 1]
    Mâncarea de acolo e bună.
    The food from there is good.
    Pământul de sub Turnul din Pisa este prea moale.
    The earth from under the Leaning Tower of Pisa is too soft.
  4. (with adverbs of time, precisely referenced time-related nouns, or prepositions or conjunctions of time) of, from, ’s
    Ziua de mâine va fi mai bună decât ziua de azi.
    Tomorrow will be better than today.
    (literally, “the day of tomorrow”, “the day of today”)
    Întâlnirile de mâine, de marți și de săptămâna viitoare se amână.
    Tomorrow’s, Tuesday’s and next week’s meetings are being postponed.
    Arhiva este plină cu documente de demult.
    The archive is full of documents from long ago.
    Știrile acestea nu sunt de acum, ci de anul trecut.
    These news are not from right now, but from last year.
    Mă uit la poze de dinainte să mă fi născut.
    I’m looking at photos from before I was born.
    Retrăiesc amintiri de când eram copil.
    I’m reliving memories from when I was a child.
    Anii de după Revoluție au fost grei.
    The years from after the Revolution were difficult.
  5. for (intended for a certain destination)
    În magazin hainele de bărbați sunt în stânga, iar cele de femei în dreapta.
    In the shop, men’s clothes are on the left, while women’s are on the right.
    Acestea sunt de începători.
    These are for beginners.
    Ai cizme de lucru?
    Do you have work boots?
    Unele lemnuri sunt bune de tâmplărie, altele sunt bune de foc.
    Some woods are good for woodworking, others are good for firewood.
  6. Introduces a measure or a measurable or describable trait: of
    Suma este de zece lei.
    The sum is 10 lei.
    (literally, “The sum is of ten lei.”)
    A fost instalat un stâlp de șase metri înălțime.
    A pole six metres in height was installed.
    (literally, “of six metres in height”)
    Un procent de 40% din populația orașului este de etnie maghiară.
    A percentage of 40% out of the town’s population is of Hungarian ethnicity.
    ― De ce culoare este casa? ― De culoare galbenă.
    “What colour is the house?” “Yellow in colour”.
    Nu mai cumpăr niciodată energizant de doi lei.
    I’ll never buy a two lei energy drink again.
    (literally, “an energy drink of two lei”)
  7. Introduces the doer of a passive verb or participle: by.[usage note 2]
    Programul este susținut de statul român.
    The program is supported by the Romanian state.
  8. Introduces the author of a work: by.
  9. Connects a cardinal numeral who is a multiple of 100 or whose tens are greater than 1 to the determinated noun.[usage note 3]
    În cont sunt două sute șaisprezece lei și patruzeci și patru de bani.
    In the account there are 216 lei and 44 bani.
  10. Connects most adverbs other than certain basic ones to the determinated adjectives or adverbs.
    Sunt nemaipomenit de atent să ajung suficient de devreme.
    I’m exceedingly careful to arrive sufficiently early.
    Motocicleta merge destul de repede.
    The motorbike is going pretty fast.
    E atât de frumos afară.
    It’s so beautiful outside.
  11. Follows certain adverbs of position (as well as the temporal adverb înainte) to form prepositional phrases.
    Este bine să locuiești aproape de centrul orașului.
    It is good to live near the city centre.
    Stația nu este departe de aici.
    The station is not far from here.
    Dincolo de munți se află Transilvania.
    Beyond the mountains lies Transylvania.
    Aceste clădiri au fost construite înainte de Primul Război Mondial.
    These buildings were built before the First World War.
  12. Marks the point of action of a force of grip: by.
    Nu lua iepurele de urechi.
    Do not grab the rabbit by the ears.
    Plăcile se prind numai de margini.
    Vinyls are held by the edges only.
    L-a mușcat câinele de mână.
    The dog bit him by the hand.
  13. (informal outside certain constructions; regarding physical or mental states or traits of living beings) for, because of, out of[usage note 4]
    Synonyms: de la (colloquial), din cauza
    La ora șase încă eram buimac de somn.
    At six I was still groggy for lack of sleep.
    Unii prizonieri au murit de foame, iar ceilalți de diverse boli.
    Some of the prisoners died of hunger, and the rest of various diseases.
    O să îți pierzi capul de zăpăcit ce ești.
    You’ll lose your own head for being so absent-minded.
    (literally, “for absent-minded that you are”)
    În casa asta nu se poate locui de multe ce lipsesc.
    One cannot live in this house for how many things are missing.
    (literally, “for many that are missing”)
    Muncitorii deja sunt obosiți de atâta drum.
    The workers are already tired for having come such a long way.
    (literally, “because of so much journey”)
  14. (informal, chiefly in the negative) Indicates the cause of a hindrance, physical or otherwise: because of
    Unii oameni stau în ușă fără să își dea seama că alții nu pot trece de ei.
    Some people stand in the doorway without realising that others cannot pass because of them.
    Nu se vede de ceață.
    There is no visibility because of fog.
    Mă auzi de zgomot?
    Can you hear me with all this noise?
    Pe aici nu se poate trece de minele de teren.
    One cannot pass through here due to landmines.
  15. Forms an adverbial numeral with ori or dăți.
    De câte ori a bătut ceasul? De șase ori.
    How many times did the pendulum clock strike? Six times.
  16. Precedes numbers and letters when they are themselves counted.
    Dacă ai un opt, o să îți trebuiască trei de zece ca să îți iasă media zece.
    If you have one grade of 8 (equivalent of a B), you’ll need three 10’s (equivalent of an A) to still get an average grade of 10.
    „Nu fi” nu se scrie cu doi de i, ci cu unul.
    Nu fi (don’t be) isn’t written with two i’s, but with one.
  17. (after indications of position or before numerals, time coordinates, or the word atât) than
    Synonym: decât (mutually exclusive in use)
    Puține orașe se află mai jos de nivelul mării.
    Few cities are situated lower than sea level.
    Război și pace are mai mult de o mie de pagini.
    War and Peace has more than a thousand pages.
    A trecut mai puțin de jumătate din vacanță.
    Less than half of summer break has passed.
    Nu se poate mai devreme de luna viitoare.
    It isn’t possible any earlier than next month.
    Poți chiar mai bine de atât.
    You can do even better than that.
  18. Marks the starting point of a state or recurring event: since, starting, as of.
    de acum încolofrom now on
    Curentul e tăiat de ieri.
    The power is cut since yesterday.
    Noii angajați încep de săptămâna viitoare serviciul.
    The new employees are beginning work starting next week.
  19. Marks the duration of a state or recurring event persisting to the present: for, in
    Compania noastră este prezentă în România de șase ani.
    Our company has been present in Romania for six years.
    Nu te-am mai văzut de multă vreme.
    I haven’t seen you in a long time.
  20. (only of festive dates) on
    Synonym: pe (of regular dates)
    De Anul Nou sau de 1 Mai se petrece.
    On New Year or May Day one celebrates.
    Mi-am luat concediu de ziua mea de naștere.
    On my birthday I took a day off.
  21. (informal) Against a sum of money or the equivalent value of something.
    De cincizeci de lei am luat cafea și de restul zahăr.
    I bought fifty lei’s worth of coffee, and sugar with the remainder.
    Poftim cinci lei, ia-ți bomboane de ei.
    Here’s five lei, buy yourself candy with it.
    De bonuri de masă nu se poate cumpăra alcool.
    One cannot buy alcohol with meal vouchers.
  22. (informal) Synonym of despre (about, of).[usage note 5]
    Ce știe lumea de economie?
    What do people know about economy?
    Tocmai vorbeam de tine.
    We were just talking about you.
  23. (informal) Connects an often negative qualifier to a noun or pronoun: of a.
    Aici stă un nesuferit de moș.Here lives a jerk of an old man.
    Prostul de mine, am uitat.Foolish me, I forgot.
  24. Stands between two repetitions of a unit of time to mark it as an interval of regular repetition: by.
    zi de ziday by day, daily
    an de anyear by year, annualy
    Minut de minut se aude semnalul.
    The signal is heard every minute.
    (literally, “minute by minute”)
  25. (colloquial) Stands between two reduplications of a noun, with the resulting construction signifying that said noun is distinguished in its class in an impressive way.
    Am văzut azi la magazin pantofi de pantofi. Bine, aveau și niște prețuri de prețuri.
    I saw some world-class shoes at the store today. Well, they also had some crazy high prices.
    Mi-a venit o idee de idee.
    I’ve just had an excellent idea.
    Toți se cred șmecheri de șmecheri.
    They all think they’re some real cool guys.
  26. Indicates a specific train by its origin station.
    Trenul de Timișoara face cincisprezece ore până la Iași.
    The Timișoara train takes fifteen hours to Iași.
  27. Indicates the recipients of an equal distribution: per.
    Rația e de 2 litri de apă de persoană.
    The ration is 2 litres of water per person.

Usage notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 In the sense of “from”, de must contract into în (in) to form din, into între (between) to form dintre, and analogously into all adverbs derived from în. The combination de la is lexicalised.
  2. ^ When in a passive construction, de can be followed by către for clarification and to no change in meaning. This is typical of, but not restricted to, formal language.
  3. ^ The de that connects numerals to nouns may be omitted, but only in very formal, financial or legal language.
  4. ^ Of the constructions using de to mean “because of”, those that are not restricted to colloquial language are those referring to common bodily states: de foame (because of hunger), de sete (because of thirst), de frig (because of cold), de cald (because of heat), de frică (for fear), de somn (for lack of sleep), as well as with the name of any disease. Informally, an optional correlative sentence can be added using the connector ce. This meaning of de is very similar to one of the senses of de la. Most of the time, however, they are not interchangeable:
    • De can precede either a noun or an adjective, whereas de la only precedes nouns.
    • When preceding nouns, a cause introduced by de generally represents a feeling that is experienced, while the cause introduced by de la generally represents an event or an activity that worked to lead to a result in a manner understood by itself. Compare de oboseală (out of exhaustion) with de la alergat (from all the running around, which is understood to have led to exhaustion).
    • The previous point can be disregarded if the determiner atâta (so much) is prepended to the noun, in which case de is valid either way: de atâta alergat (from so much running around).
    • De is more likely to have negative connotations than de la.
  5. ^ In the sense of “about”, it can only be used after a verb, and not copulatively (“is about”) or after a noun (“a discussion about”). Despre, however, can be used in any of these situations.

Derived terms

Pronoun

de m or f or n (indeclinable)

  1. (informal or regional) Relative pronoun: who, whom, to whom.
    Synonym: care

Usage notes

De can replace any form of care in the nominative, accusative and dative case.

  • Nominative: omul care a sosit — omul de a sosit (The man who arrived)
  • Accusative: casa pe care o văd — casa de o văd (the house which I see)
  • Dative: unul căruia i-am plătit — unul de i-am plătit (one to whom I paid)

Genitive constructions cannot be expressed with de.

Replacement of accusative care preceded by a preposition is done with a resumption of the object: filmul la care ne-am uitat — filmul de ne-am uitat la el (the film we watched). Stylistically this is much less desirable.

References

Romansch

Alternative forms

  • (Rumantsch Grischun, Sursilvan, Puter, Vallader) di
  • (Sursilvan, Sutsilvan) gi

Etymology

From Latin diēs.

Noun

de m (plural des)

  1. (Surmiran) day

Sardinian

Alternative forms

Etymology

From Latin , from Proto-Italic *dē, ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *de.

Pronunciation

Preposition

de (Logudorese, Campidanese, Nuorese)

  1. Used to indicate possession, after the thing owned and before the owner; of; ’s
  2. from
  3. by, of, ’s
  4. than
  5. Used in superlative forms; in, of
  6. about, on, concerning
  7. Expresses composition; of, made of, in or more often omitted
  8. (followed by an infinitive) to or omitted
  9. Used in some expressions in a partitive-like function, often without article.

References

  • Rubattu, Antoninu (2006) Dizionario universale della lingua di Sardegna, 2nd edition, Sassari: Edes
  • Wagner, Max Leopold (1960–1964) “de”, in Dizionario etimologico sardo, Heidelberg

Saterland Frisian

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /də/
  • Hyphenation: de

Article

de

  1. Unstressed form of die
  2. Unstressed form of ju
  3. Unstressed form of do

References

  • Pyt Kramer (1996) Kute Seelter Sproakleere, Mildam, page 10

Scottish Gaelic

Alternative forms

Etymology

From Old Irish di. Cognates include Irish de and Manx jeh.

Pronunciation

Preposition

de (+ dative, triggers lenition of consonants and Dh-prothesis of vowels, combined with the singular definite article dhen)

  1. of
  2. off

Usage notes

  • Before a word beginning with a vowel or fh, the form de dh' may be used:
    tha gràine de dh'airgead agamI have a little bit of money
  • In colloquial language and certain set phrases, the reduced form a may be used:
    chan eil càil a dh'fhios aigehe has no idea

Inflection

Personal inflection of de
Number Person Simple Emphatic
Singular 1st dhìom dhìomsa
2nd dhìot dhìotsa
3rd m dheth dhethsan
3rd f dhith dhithse
Plural 1st dhinn dhinne
2nd dhibh dhibhse
3rd dhiubh dhiubhsan

Derived terms

  • bhàrr (down from, from off)

Serbo-Croatian

Etymology

From Proto-Slavic *kъdě, *kъde, from Proto-Indo-European *kʷu-dʰe.

Adverb

de (Cyrillic spelling де)

  1. (Kajkavian, regional) where

Pronoun

de (Cyrillic spelling де)

  1. (Kajkavian, regional) where

Synonyms

Seychellois Creole

Etymology

From French deux.

Numeral

de

  1. two

Southern Ndebele

Etymology

From Proto-Bantu *-dàì.

Adjective

-de

  1. tall

Inflection

This entry needs an inflection-table template.

Spanish

Pronunciation

Etymology 1

Noun

de f (plural des)

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter D/d.

Etymology 2

Spanish preposition “de” written as a ligature in capitals
Hand-painted preposition “DE” in the wild

From Latin .

Preposition

de

  1. of; 's; used after the thing owned and before the owner
    Constitución española de 1812
    Spanish constitution of 1812
    la cola del perro
    the dog’s tail
  2. from (with the source or provenance of or at)
    Soy de España.
    I’m from Spain.
    agua de manantialspringwater
  3. of (expressing composition, substance)
    una mesa de maderaa wooden table
  4. about (concerning; with regard to)
    Synonyms: sobre, acerca de
    Están hablando del pasado.
    They're talking about the past.
    tratarse deto be about; to concern
  5. of, from (indicating cause)
    Murió de hambre.
    He died of hunger.
  6. of (indicates a quality or characteristic)
    un hombre de fe
    a man of faith
  7. from (with the origin, starting point or initial reference of or at)
    Synonym: desde
    el vuelo de Miami a Chicago
    the flight from Miami to Chicago
  8. of (indicates the subject or cause of the adjective)
    harto desick of; tired of
  9. from (with the separation, exclusion or differentiation of)
    Nos protege del frío.
    It protects us from the cold.
  10. than (in certain phrases)
    más demore than
    menos deless than, fewer than
  11. used to construct compound nouns (with attributive nouns)
    campamento de verano
    summer camp
  12. (followed by the infinitive) indicates a conditional desire
    De haberlo sabido, no lo habría dicho.
    If I had known, I wouldn't have said it.
  13. indicates a time of day or period of someone's life
    de díaduring the daytime
    de niñoas a child; during childhood
  14. (after a noun and before a verb) indicates the purpose of an object
    Synonym: para
    goma de mascarchewing gum
    caña de pescarfishing rod
Usage notes
  • de combines with el to form del.
Derived terms
Related terms

Further reading

Sranan Tongo

Etymology

From English there.

Pronunciation

Verb

de

  1. (copula) to be.

Particle

de

  1. (dated) Alternative form of e.

Swedish

Etymology 1

From Old Norse þeir, from Proto-Germanic *þai (with noun ending -r).

Alternative forms

Pronunciation

Pronoun

de (third-person plural nominative, dative and accusative dem, genitive deras, reflexive sig)

  1. they
  2. Misspelling of dem.
Usage notes

In most dialects, de (they) and dem (them) are no longer distinguished in speech. They are regularly mixed up in writing by native speakers, due to lack of grammatical intuition. The article de is often mixed up with dem as well.

Declension

Article

de

  1. the, a definite article used in the beginning of noun phrases containing attributive adjectives and nouns in the plural. This article is used together with the definite suffix of the noun to indicate the definiteness of the noun phrase.
    de gröna bilarnathe green cars
Usage notes
  • The usage notes for den explain how to express "the ."
  • The same type of noun phrases with singular nouns instead use den (common gender) or det (neuter) for this function. Some definite noun phrases with attributive adjectives may skip these preceding articles. This is the case especially for many lexicalized noun phrases and also for many noun phrases working as proper names of organisations, geographical places, TV shows, events and similar.
Brittiska öarna
The British Isles
Han har varit inne i Vita huset
He has been inside the White House (where "Han har varit inne i det vita huset" would be expected were "Vita huset" not a proper noun)

While the personal pronoun de has an object form and a genitive form, the definite article de is unaffected by the syntactic role of the noun phrase.

Related terms

Etymology 2

From the common pronunciation of this word.

Pronunciation

Pronoun

de

  1. (colloquial, text messaging, Internet) Pronunciation spelling of det.

Article

de

  1. (colloquial, text messaging, Internet) Pronunciation spelling of det.

References

Anagrams

Tabaru

Pronunciation

Conjunction

de

  1. coordinating conjunction between two nouns: and
    'o 'esa de 'o deamother and father
  2. coordinating conjunction between two clauses: and
    'una wigogama de witirinehe is feverish and he trembles

References

  • Edward A. Kotynski (1988) “Tabaru phonology and morphology”, in Work Papers of the Summer Institute of Linguistics, University of North Dakota Session, volume 32, Summer Institute of Linguistics

Tagalog

Pronunciation

Etymology 1

Borrowed from Spanish de (of).

Preposition

de (Baybayin spelling ᜇᜒ) (archaic)

  1. of (now only used in derived forms)
    Synonym: ng
See also

Etymology 2

Borrowed from Spanish de, the Spanish name of the letter D/d.

Noun

de (Baybayin spelling ᜇᜒ) (historical)

  1. the name of the Latin-script letter D/d, in the Abecedario
    Synonyms: (in the Filipino alphabet) di, (in the Abakada alphabet) da

Further reading

  • Panganiban, José Villa (1973) Diksyunaryo-Tesauro Pilipino-Ingles, Quezon City: Manlapaz Publishing Co., page 360

Tarantino

Preposition

de

  1. of

Tok Pisin

This entry has fewer than three known examples of actual usage, the minimum considered necessary for clear attestation, and may not be reliable. Tok Pisin is subject to a special exemption for languages with limited documentation. If you speak it, please consider editing this entry or adding citations. See also Help and the Community Portal.

Etymology

From English day.

Noun

de

  1. day
    • 1989, Buk Baibel long Tok Pisin, Port Moresby: Bible Society of Papua New Guinea, Jenesis 1:5:
      Tulait em i kolim “De”, na tudak em i kolim “Nait”. Nait i go pinis na moning i kamapage. Em i de namba wan.
      →New International Version translation

Related terms

See also

Turkish

Alternative forms

  • da (after front vowels)

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): (standard) /dɛ/,
  • IPA(key): (colloquial) /‿dɛ/,

Etymology 1

From Ottoman Turkish ده (da, de, conj. also, and, moreover, again), from Proto-Turkic *tākı (conj. and).

Conjunction

de

  1. as well, too, also
    Özer de sorunun yanıtını biliyor.Özer also knows the answer of the question.
    Berker de bizimle geliyor.Berker is coming with us as well.
    Utku da dondurma yemeyi sever.Utku likes eating ice cream, too.
  2. however
    Herkes iddia ediyor ki boyum uzamış da ben fark etmiyorum.Everyone claims that I've gotten taller however I don't really notice it.
Usage notes
  • Complies with vowel harmony; takes the form da with vowels "a, ı, o, u" and de with vowels "e, i, ö, ü."
  • Although generally linked with the word before in conversations, the Turkish Language Association accepts the joined spelling of the word before with "de" as a misspelling.

Etymology 2

Verb

de

  1. second-person singular imperative of demek

Etymology 3

Noun

de

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter D/d.

See also

References

  1. ^ Redhouse, James W. (1890) “ده”, in A Turkish and English Lexicon, Constantinople: A. H. Boyajian, page 929
  2. ^ Starostin, Sergei, Dybo, Anna, Mudrak, Oleg (2003) “*d(i)akɨ”, in Etymological dictionary of the Altaic languages (Handbuch der Orientalistik; VIII.8), Leiden, New York, Köln: E.J. Brill
  3. ^ Nişanyan, Sevan (2002–) “de”, in Nişanyan Sözlük

Further reading

Volapük

Preposition

de

  1. of, from

Welsh

Pronunciation

Etymology 1

Contraction of older deau (right; south), from Proto-Celtic *dexswos (right). Cognate with Cornish dyhow, Breton dehou, Irish deas, Scottish Gaelic deas, Manx jiass.

The sense "south" comes from the fact that the south is on the right-hand side of a person facing east. Compare the relationship between cledd (left) and gogledd (north).

Adjective

de (feminine singular de, plural de, not comparable)

  1. right (opposite of left)
  2. south, southern (abbreviation: D)
Derived terms

Noun

de m or f (uncountable)

  1. right
  2. south
  3. (as y De, when in Wales) South Wales
Usage notes
  • The noun has masculine gender when used with the sense of "south" and feminine gender when used with the sense "right".
Mutation
Welsh mutation
radical soft nasal aspirate
de dde ne unchanged
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.
Antonyms
  • (antonym(s) of south): gogledd
  • (antonym(s) of right): chwith
Derived terms

See also

  • (compass points)
gogledd-orllewin gogledd gogledd-ddwyrain
gorllewin dwyrain
de-orllewin de de-ddwyrain


References

  1. ^ Evans, D. Silvan (1893) Dictionary of the Welsh Language, page 1388

Etymology 2

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Noun

de

  1. Soft mutation of te.
Mutation
Welsh mutation
radical soft nasal aspirate
te de nhe the
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

West Frisian

Etymology

Compare Dutch and Low German de, English the, German der.

Determiner

de

  1. the; definite article
    Ik hâld de boek.I'm holding the book.

Usage notes

After one-syllable prepositions ending in a consonant, the variant 'e is used.

Inflection

  • Common singular: de
  • Neuter singular: it
  • Plural: de

Further reading

  • de”, in Wurdboek fan de Fryske taal (in Dutch), 2011

West Makian

Etymology

Possibly related to the stem found in Ternate ngori.

Pronunciation

Pronoun

de (possessive prefix ti)

  1. first-person singular pronoun, I

See also

References

  • Clemens Voorhoeve (1982) The Makian languages and their neighbours, Pacific linguistics

Wyandot

Etymology

cf. Mohawk ne.

Article

de

  1. the

Xhosa

Etymology

From Proto-Bantu *-dàì.

Adjective

-de

  1. tall

Inflection

Adjective concord, tone L
Modifier Copulative
positive negative positive negative
1st singular endimde endingemde ndimde andimde
2nd singular omde ongemde umde awumde
1st plural esibade esingebade sibade asibade
2nd plural enibade eningebade nibade anibade
Class 1 omde ongemde mde akamde
Class 2 abade abangebade bade ababade
Class 3 omde ongemde mde awumde
Class 4 emide engemide mide ayimide
Class 5 elide elingelide lide alilide
Class 6 amade angemade made awamade
Class 7 eside esingeside side asiside
Class 8 ezinde ezingezinde zinde azizinde
Class 9 ende engende inde ayiyinde
Class 10 ezinde ezingezinde zinde azizinde
Class 11 olude olungelude lude alulude
Class 14 obude obungebude bude abubude
Class 15 okude okungekude kude akukude
Class 17 okude okungekude kude akukude

Ye'kwana

Pronunciation

Particle

de

  1. expresses frustration

References

  • Cáceres, Natalia (2011) “de”, in Grammaire Fonctionnelle-Typologique du Ye’kwana, Lyon

Yoruba

Alternative forms

Etymology 1

Pronunciation

Verb

  1. (transitive) to tie down, to constrain
    Mo dè é lọ́wọ́ àti lẹ́sẹ̀I tied him on both his hands and legs
  2. to embroider
    Mo de ọrùn aṣọ náàI embroided the neck of the clothes
Usage notes
  • de when coming before a direct object
Derived terms

Etymology 2

Pronunciation

Verb

  1. (intransitive) to deputize, to hold a position for someone temporarily
    Ó ń de ipò fún miHe was deputizing my position for me
Usage notes
  • Usually used with the word ipò (position)
  • de when coming before a direct object
Derived terms

Etymology 3

Cognate with Igala .

Pronunciation

Verb

  1. (transitive) to await, to wait for
    Mo jókòó éI sat down and waited for him
Usage notes
  • de when coming before a direct object noun
  • Used as a verb-second element

Etymology 4

Pronunciation

Verb

  1. (intransitive, copulative) to arrive
    A ti We have arrived
  2. (transitive) to attain, to reach a particular point
Derived terms

Preposition

  1. up to, as far as
    Ó gùn títí ÈkóIt stretched to as far as Lagos

Etymology 5

Cognate with Igala .

Pronunciation

Verb

  1. (transitive) to cover, to wear a hat
Derived terms

Zande

Noun

de

  1. woman

Zealandic

Etymology

An unstressed variety of Middle Dutch die.

Determiner

de

  1. the (definite article)

Inflection

  • Masculine: de, d'n (before b, d, t or a vowel)
  • Feminine: de
  • Neuter: 't
  • Plural: de

Zhuang

Etymology

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium. Particularly: “Proto-Zhuang-Tai *te.A?”)

Pronunciation

Pronoun

de (Sawndip forms or 𬿇 or 𭶼 or or or 𰂡, 1957–1982 spelling de)

  1. he; she; it

See also

Standard Zhuang personal pronouns
Person Singular Plural
1st exclusive gou dou
inclusive raeuz
2nd mwngz sou
3rd de gyoengqde

Zulu

Etymology

From Proto-Bantu *-dàì. The expected reflex would be -le, however it was changed due to analogy with its class 8, 9, and 10 forms (zinde, inde, zinde).

Adjective

-de

  1. long
  2. tall, high

Inflection

Adjective concord, tone L
Modifier Copulative
positive negative positive negative
1st singular engimude engingemude ngimude angimude
2nd singular omude ongemude umude awumude
1st plural esibade esingebade sibade asibade
2nd plural enibade eningebade nibade anibade
Class 1 omude ongemude mude akamude
Class 2 abade abangebade bade ababade
Class 3 omude ongemude mude awumude
Class 4 emide engemide mide ayimide
Class 5 elide elingelide lide alilide
Class 6 amade angemade made awamade
Class 7 eside esingeside side asiside
Class 8 ezinde ezingezinde zinde azizinde
Class 9 ende engende, engeyinde inde, yinde ayiyinde
Class 10 ezinde ezingezinde zinde azizinde
Class 11 olude olungelude lude alulude
Class 14 obude obungebude bude abubude
Class 15 okude okungekude kude akukude
Class 17 okude okungekude kude akukude

Derived terms

Verb

-de

  1. (auxiliary) always

Inflection

This verb needs an inflection-table template.

References

ǃKung

Noun

de

  1. woman

Synonyms