er

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English

Pronunciation

  • enPR: ûr, IPA(key): /ɜː/
  • (file)
  • Rhymes: -ɜː(r)
  • Used in non-rhotic dialects. Compare uh.

Etymology 1

Mimetic (sound of hesitation)

Interjection

er

  1. Said when hesitating in speech.
    • 2012, Linda Miller, Desire and Destiny:
      If he—er—disappears—well, it seems to me that we'd both benefit.
    • 2019 December 10, Yacht Club Games, "Story" (Mona), in Shovel Knight Showdown (version 4.1), Nintendo Switch:
      Liquid Samurai: 'FORMLESS AND INFINITE ARE WE, THE LIQUID SAMURAI. I SERVE MY QUEEN, AS WE HAVE FOR COUNTLESS--' / Mona: 'HEY, I DON'T MEAN TO INTERRUPT, BUT YOU SEEM LIKE YOU'RE MADE OF POWERFUL STUFF. CAN I, ER, STUDY YOU?'

Verb

er (third-person singular simple present ers, present participle erring, simple past and past participle erred)

  1. (informal) To utter the word "er" when hesitating in speech, found in the phrase um and er.
    He ummed and erred his way through the presentation.

See also

Etymology 2

Noun

er (plural ers)

  1. The name of the Cyrillic script letter Р / р.

Anagrams

Afrikaans

Pronunciation

Noun

er (plural erre or ers, diminutive erretjie)

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter R/r.

Alemannic German

Etymology

From Old High German er, from Proto-Germanic *iz. Cognate with German er.

Pronoun

er m

  1. (personal) he; it

Declension

Bavarian

Alternative forms

  • ea (phonetic spelling)
  • a (unstressed form)

Etymology

From Middle High German er, from Old High German er (he). Cognate with German er.

Pronunciation

Pronoun

er

  1. he

See also

Breton

Contraction

er

  1. Contraction of e ur (in a(n)).
  2. Contraction of e ar (in the).

Cimbrian

Alternative forms

Etymology

From Middle High German ër, from Old High German er, from Proto-West Germanic *iʀ (he, it), from Proto-Germanic *iz (he, she, it, they). Cognate with German er.

Pronoun

er

  1. (Luserna) he, it

Inflection

Personal pronouns
singular plural
1st person i biar
2nd person du iar
3rd person er, si, 'z se

References

Cornish

Pronunciation

Etymology 1

From Old Cornish er, from Proto-Celtic *eriros (eagle) (compare Breton erer, Welsh eryr, Old Irish *irar), from Proto-Indo-European *h₃érō (large bird).

er (an eagle)

Noun

er m (plural eryon or eres)

  1. eagle

Etymology 2

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Noun

er m (plural erys)

  1. heir

Etymology 3

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Noun

er

  1. Soft mutation of ger.

Crimean Tatar

Adjective

er

  1. every

Czech

Pronunciation

Noun

er n (indeclinable)

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter R/r.

Further reading

  • er in Příruční slovník jazyka českého, 1935–1957
  • er in Slovník spisovného jazyka českého, 1960–1971, 1989

Danish

Etymology

From Old Danish ær, Proto-Germanic *izum, *izud, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁es- (to be). The infinitive of the verb (være) is from a different PIE root; the present tense is suppletive.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ɛr/, , , but often elided in spontaneous speech.

Verb

er

  1. present of være

Dutch

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ɛr/, /ər/, /dər/

Etymology 1

Weak form of der, the unstressed form of daar ("there")

Adverb

er

  1. there (unspecific to distance)
  2. (with a preposition) it; him, her, them.
    Ik heb ermee gewerkt.
    I have worked with it/them.
    Je kunt er de bergen boven zien.
    You can see the mountains above it/them.
Usage notes
Descendants
  • Petjo: d'r

Etymology 2

From Old Dutch iro, genitive of the personal pronoun (3rd person plural).

Adverb

er

  1. (partitive pronoun) of them, of those (often not translated in English)
    Mijn broer heeft drie kinderen en ik heb er twee.
    My brother has three children and I have two. (literally: two of those)
    Ik zie er geen meer.
    I don't see any more (of them).
Synonyms
Derived terms

See Category:Dutch pronominal adverbs

Related terms
See also

Anagrams

Faroese

Pronunciation

Verb

er

  1. third-person singular indicative present of vera
    Hann er skipari.
    He is a captain/skipper.
    Hon er úr Føroyum.
    She is from the Faroe Islands.
    Tað er í ordan.
    It's all right.

German

Etymology

From Middle High German ër, from Old High German er, from Proto-West Germanic *iʀ, from Proto-Germanic *iz. In northern Middle High German and Old High German there also existed forms with initial h-, namely Middle High German her, Old High German her, from Proto-Germanic *hiz, whence Central Franconian and (from the accusative) Luxembourgish hien. Compare English he. The unusual spelling ih- in the forms ihm, ihn is not related to this. It was introduced in early modern German to distinguish these forms from im, in (when *iem, *ien could have been read as *jem, *jen).

Pronunciation

  • (standard) IPA(key): /eːr/, ,
  • (colloquially in unstressed position) IPA(key): /ɐ/

Pronoun

er

  1. (personal) he.
    (file)
    Wo ist Klaus? Wo ist er?Where is Klaus? Where is he?
    (file)
    Dies ist mein Hund. Er heißt Waldi.This is my dog. His name is Waldi.
  2. (personal) it (when the grammatical gender of the object/article/thing/animal etc., being referred to, is masculine (der)).
    (file)
    Dort steht ein Baum. Er ist über hundert Jahre alt.There stands a tree. It is more than 100 years old.
  3. (personal) she (when the grammatical gender of the noun being referred to and designating a female person, is masculine (der)).
    (file)
    Im Frauengefängnis versuchte ein Häftling zu flüchten, aber er kam nicht weit.In the women’s prison, an inmate tried to escape, but she didn’t get very far.
  4. (personal, archaic) Alternative spelling of Er (you (polite))
    • (Can we date this quote?), Clemens Brentano, Geschichte vom braven Kasperl und dem schönen Annerl (edited). In: 1835, F. W. Gubitz (editor), Jahrbuch des Nützlichen und Unterhaltenden für 1835, p. 171:
      Da fuhr die Alte überraſcht auf und ſprach: Lieber Herr, gehe er doch nach Haus und bete er fein und lege er ſich ſchlafen.
      Then the old woman sprang up, surprised, and said: Dear gentleman, do go home and say your prayers and go to bed.
    • 1837, Brothers Grimm, “Der junge Riese”, in Kinder- und Haus-Märchen, Band 2, page 27:
      Da sprach er „Vater, ich sehe wohl, bei ihm werd ich nicht satt, will er mir einen Stab von Eisen verschaffen, der stark ist, und den ich vor meinen Knien nicht zerbrechen kann, so will ich wieder fort gehen.“ Da war der Bauer froh, und spannte seine zwei Pferde vor den Wagen, fuhr zum Schmied, und holte einen Stab so groß und dick, als ihn die zwei Pferde nur fahren konnten.
      Then he said: "Father, I can see that I shall not be able to eat my fill here. If you bring me a strong rod of iron that I cannot break, I shall go away again." Then the farmer was glad, and he harnessed his horses to the wagon, drove to the smithy, and fetched a rod so long and thick that his two horses could barely pull it.

Declension

  • In contemporary German, the genitive forms of personal pronouns are restricted to formal style and are infrequent even then. They may be used:
    • for the genitive object still found in a handful of verbs: Ich erbarmte mich seiner. – "I had mercy on him". (Colloquially one would either use the dative case, or a prepositional object, or replace the verb with another.)
    • with certain adjectives or prepositions that govern the genitive, such as statt ("instead of, in place of"): Ich kam statt seiner in die Mannschaft. – I joined the team in his place. (This sounds antiquated, for which reason an seiner Statt or an seiner Stelle is preferable.)
  • Older forms/spellings include:
    • jm (dative; 16th century), jn (accusative; 16th century) – distinguished from im (in the, into the) and in (in, into)
    • ihme (dative)

Derived terms

Further reading

Hunsrik

Alternative forms

  • ëyer (Wiesemann spelling system)

Etymology

From Old High German er, from Proto-Germanic *iz. Displaced the northern Old High German forms with h-, e.g. , her (see he).

Pronunciation

Pronoun

er

  1. he

Inflection

Further reading

Icelandic

Pronunciation

This entry needs an audio pronunciation. If you are a native speaker with a microphone, please record this word. The recorded pronunciation will appear here when it's ready.

Etymology 1

Old Norse er (is, 3rd person singular), analogical leveling of earlier es, from Proto-Germanic *isti, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁ésti.

Use with the 1st person singular is also by analogy with other forms in er-; the Old Norse 1st person singular form was em.

Verb

er

  1. first-person singular indicative present of vera
    Ég er skemmtilegur.
    I am fun (masculine)
    Hver er ég?
    Who am I?
  2. third-person singular indicative present of vera
    Hver er hann?
    Who is he?

Etymology 2

Old Norse er, from Proto-Germanic *iz (he), from Proto-Indo-European *ís (he, that).

Pronoun

er

  1. (relative) which
    Maður er , er Jón heitir.
    There is a man who is named John.
    Konan, er hann vartala við.
    The woman to whom he was talking.
    Þetta er borgin, er hann kom frá.
    This is the city from which he originated.
    Bærinn, er hún ætlar til.
    The town to which she's heading.
  2. (archaic) in relations with a demonstrative pronoun (this, that, these) or personal pronoun (I, we, they), which represents the genitive of a relative pronoun.
    Það er bók, er menn þekkja eigi höfund hennar.
    There is a book whose author people don't know.

Conjunction

er

  1. (with an "indexical"; ábendingarorð) of a place, of a time
    • Judges 2:19
      En er dómarinn andaðist, breyttu þeir að nýju verr en feður þeirra, með því að elta aðra guði til þess að þjóna þeim og falla fram fyrir þeim. Þeir létu eigi af gjörðum sínum né þrjóskubreytni sinni.
      But when the judge died, the people returned to ways even more corrupt than those of their ancestors, following other gods and serving and worshiping them. They refused to give up their evil practices and stubborn ways.
    Þar er ég kom.
    There whence I came.
    Þá er myndin var búin.
    When the movie was finished.
Derived terms

References

  • "er", in Geir T. Zoëga (1910) A Concise Dictionary of Old Icelandic, Oxford: Clarendon Press

Indonesian

Etymology

From Dutch er.

Pronunciation

Noun

èr

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter R/r.

Synonyms

  • ar (Standard Malay)

See also

Further reading

Italian

Alternative forms

  • 'r (after vowels)

Article

er m sg

  1. (Roman) Dialectal form of el, whence modern il

Jamtish

Verb

er

  1. present indicative of vara

Japanese

Alternative forms

Etymology

From English -er, forming novel pseudo-Anglicisms.

Pronunciation

Suffix

er(アー) (

  1. (slang) Suffix used for people, especially fans.

Derived terms

Related terms

Further reading

  • 難波功士 (2006) “〈研究ノート〉“-er”の系譜:サブカルチュラル・アイデンティティの現在 [The History of Neology Using the Suffix ‘-er’ in Japanese: In terms of sub-cultural identities of youths]”, in 関西学院大学社会学部紀要, number 100, pages 181–189

Kembra

Noun

er

  1. water

Latin

Etymology 1

From Proto-Italic *hēr, from Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰḗr (hedgehog) (whence also Ancient Greek χήρ (khḗr, hedgehog)), a root noun from *ǵʰer- (to be excited, be bristly), whence also Ancient Greek χοῖρος (khoîros, young pig) and Albanian derr (pig) from *ǵʰór-yos.

Pronunciation

Noun

ēr m (genitive ēris); third declension

  1. hedgehog
Usage notes

There is some uncertainty as to the exact forms of this word, especially regarding whether the lemma form of this was ēr or ēris, as the forms attested in literature could point to either option. Another form, irim (acc. sing.; found in Plautus, Capt. 184), seems to be a spelling variant.

Declension

Third-declension noun.

Case Singular Plural
Nominative ēr ērēs
Genitive ēris ērum
Dative ērī ēribus
Accusative ērem ērēs
Ablative ēre ēribus
Vocative ēr ērēs
Related terms

Etymology 2

Pronunciation

Noun

er f (indeclinable)

  1. The name of the letter R.
Usage notes
  • Multiple Latin names for the letter R, r have been suggested. The most common is er or a syllabic r, although there is some evidence which also supports, as names for the letter, , rrr, ər, , and even (in the fourth- or fifth-century first Antinoë papyrus, which gives Greek transliterations of the Latin names of the Roman alphabet’s letters) ιρρε (irrhe).
Coordinate terms

References

  • "ēr", in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • ēr in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré latin-français, Hachette.
  • Arthur E. Gordon, The Letter Names of the Latin Alphabet (University of California Press, 1973; volume 9 of University of California Publications: Classical Studies), especially pages 30–31, 42–44, and 63
  1. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) “ēr”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 193

Latvian

Pronunciation

(file)

Noun

er m (invariable)

  1. The Latvian name of the Latin script letter R/r.

See also

Low German

Pronoun

er

  1. Alternative spelling of ehr

Lower Sorbian

Pronunciation

Noun

er m inan

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter r/R.

See also

Mambae

Noun

er

  1. water

References

  • Mambai Language Manual: Ainaro Dialect (2001)

Mandarin

Romanization

er

  1. Nonstandard spelling of ēr.
  2. Nonstandard spelling of ér.
  3. Nonstandard spelling of ěr.
  4. Nonstandard spelling of èr.

Usage notes

  • Transcriptions of Mandarin into the Latin script often do not distinguish between the critical tonal differences employed in the Mandarin language, using words such as this one without indication of tone.

Manx

Etymology

From Old Irish for.

Preposition

er

  1. on
  2. onto
  3. during
  4. for

Inflection

Singular Plural
Person 1st 2nd 3rd m. 3rd f. 1st 2nd 3rd
Normal orrym ort er urree orrin erriu orroo
Emphatic orryms orts ersyn urreeish orrinyn erriuish orroosyn

Pronoun

er

  1. third-person singular of er
    on him/it

Derived terms

Middle Dutch

Adverb

er

  1. unstressed form of dāer

Middle English

Etymology 1

From Old English ǣr, from Proto-West Germanic *airi, from Proto-Germanic *airi.

Pronunciation

Adverb

er

  1. early
  2. earlier
  3. formerly
  4. rather
Derived terms
Descendants
References

Etymology 2

Determiner

er

  1. Alternative form of hire (her, genitive)

Pronoun

er

  1. Alternative form of hire (hers)

Etymology 3

Pronoun

er

  1. Alternative form of hire (her, object)

Etymology 4

Noun

er

  1. Alternative form of eere (ear of grain)

Etymology 5

Determiner

er

  1. Alternative form of here (their)

Middle High German

Etymology

Inherited from Old High German er, from Proto-Germanic *iz (he).

Pronoun

ër

  1. (personal) he

Inflection

Middle High German personal pronouns
Number Person Gender Nominative Genitive Dative Accusative
Singular First ich mîn mir mich
Second du, dîn dir dich
Third Masculine ër sîn im(e) in
Feminine siu (, si) ir(e) ir(e) sie (, si)
Neuter ëȥ es im(e) ëȥ
Plural First wir unser uns unsich, uns
Second ir iuwer iu iuch
Third Masculine sie (, si) ir(e) in sie (, si)
Feminine
Neuter siu, (, si) siu (, si)

Descendants

  • Alemannic German:
    Low Alemannic:
    Alsatian: ar, er, ër
    Badisch: er
    High Alemannic: er, är
    Bernese: är
    Lucerne: aer
    Northeastern: ar
    Walser: är
  • Swabian: er, ear
    Swabian Jura: ear
  • Bavarian: er
  • Central Franconian:
    Moselle Franconian: er
  • East Central German:
    High Prussian: er
    Silesian East Central German:
    Lower Silesian East Central German: a
    Upper Silesian East Central German: a
    North Moravian: ar
    Thuringian: er
    Central Thuringian: er
    West Thuringian: aa
    Upper Saxon German: är
    Meißnisch: är
    Osterländisch: är
    Erzgebirgisch: aorr
    Lusatian: ar
  • German: er
    Berlinerisch: er/ea
  • East Franconian: er, ea
    Unterfränkisch: ar
    Hohenlohisch: er
  • Rhine Franconian:
    Upper Hessian: er
    Lorraine Franconian: ér, éa
    Palatine German: er
    • Pennsylvania German: er
  • Yiddish: ער (er)

References

  • Benecke, Georg Friedrich, Müller, Wilhelm, Zarncke, Friedrich (1863) “ër”, in Mittelhochdeutsches Wörterbuch: mit Benutzung des Nachlasses von Benecke, Stuttgart: S. Hirzel

Mòcheno

Etymology

From Middle High German ër, from Old High German er, from Proto-West Germanic *iʀ (he, it), from Proto-Germanic *iz (he, she, it, they). Cognate with German er.

Pronoun

er

  1. he, it

Inflection

Personal pronouns
singular plural
1st person i biar
2nd person du ir
3rd person er, si, s sei

References

Norwegian Bokmål

Pronunciation

Verb

er

  1. present of være (=to be)

Norwegian Nynorsk

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /æː(r)/, /eː(r)/

Verb

er

  1. is, are, am (present of to be) present of vera
    Eg er framand.I am a stranger.
  2. (auxiliary) be
    Boka er skriven.The book is written
    Bøkene er skrivne.The books are written.

References

  • “vera” in The Nynorsk Dictionary.
  • er på engelsk”, in DinOrdbok, Nynorsk-engelsk oversettelse, 2018 October 15 (last accessed)

Old Dutch

Etymology

From Proto-West Germanic *airi, from Proto-Germanic *airiz.

Preposition

ēr

  1. before, earlier than

Descendants

Further reading

  • ēr (II)”, in Oudnederlands Woordenboek, 2012

Conjunction

ēr

  1. ere, afore

Descendants

Further reading

  • ēr (III)”, in Oudnederlands Woordenboek, 2012

Adverb

ēr

  1. previously, in an earlier period, in a bygone time
  2. earlier, before a certain time or period

Descendants

Further reading

  • ēr (I)”, in Oudnederlands Woordenboek, 2012

Old Frisian

Etymology 1

From Proto-West Germanic *airi, from Proto-Germanic *airiz. Cognates include Old English ǣr, Old Saxon ēr and Old Dutch ēr.

Pronunciation

Adverb

ēr

  1. earlier, previously

Preposition

ēr (+ dative)

  1. before (of time)

Descendants

  • Saterland Frisian: eer
  • West Frisian: ear't

Etymology 2

Pronunciation

Noun

ēr f

  1. Alternative form of ēre

References

  • Bremmer, Rolf H. (2009) An Introduction to Old Frisian: History, Grammar, Reader, Glossary, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, →ISBN

Old High German

Etymology 1

From Proto-West Germanic *airi, from Proto-Germanic *airiz, whence also Old English ær.

Pronunciation

Adjective

ēr

  1. early

Adverb

ēr

  1. ere, before
  2. formerly

Conjunction

ēr

  1. before, until

Preposition

ēr (+ dative)

  1. before

Etymology 2

From Proto-Germanic *aiz, akin to Old English ār, Old Norse eir.

Pronunciation

Noun

ēr n

  1. ore
  2. brass
Descendants
  • Middle High German: er
    • Alemannic German: Eer
      • Alemannic German: eerig
  • Old High German: ērīn

Etymology 3

From Proto-Germanic *iz (he), akin to Gothic 𐌹𐍃 (is, he), Latin is (he).

Alternative forms

Pronunciation

Pronoun

er

  1. he
    • c. 825, Tatian, Diatessaron, translation, Chapter 13, verse 20.
      [] Bist thu wīzago? inti her antlingota nein []
      Are you prophet? and he responded no
Inflection
Old High German personal pronouns
Number Person Gender Nominative Genitive Dative Accusative
Singular First ih
(ihha, ihcha)
mīn mir mih
Second dīn dir dih
Third Masculine er (her) (sīn) imu, imo inan, in
Feminine siu; , si ira (iru, iro) iru, iro sia
Neuter iz es, is imu, imo iz
Plural First wir unsēr uns unsih
Second ir iuwēr iu iuwih
Third Masculine sie iro im, in sie
Feminine sio iro im, in sio
Neuter siu iro im, in siu
Polite form Second   ir iuwēr iu iuwih
Descendants
  • Middle High German: ër (see there for further descendants)

References

  • Joseph Wright, An Old High German Primer

Old Norse

Alternative forms

Etymology 1

From earlier es, from Proto-Germanic *iz (he; 3rd person personal pronoun). Cognate with Gothic 𐌹𐍃 (is), Old High German ēr (German er).

Pronoun

er

  1. who, which, that
    • verse 76 of the Hávamál (1996 translation by Carolyne Larrington)
      en orðstírr / deyr aldregi / hveim er sér góðan getr
      but the glory of reputation never dies, / for the man who can get himself a good one

Conjunction

er

  1. where
  2. when
    En er hann dó, grét ǫll verǫldin
    and when he died, the whole world cried.
Descendants
  • Icelandic: er
  • Faroese: er
  • Old Swedish: ær

Usage notes

  • The oldest Icelandic manuscripts from the 12th century still have the older form es, and many poems metrically require the contracted form -s (which is also sporadically present in later manuscripts like the late 13th century Codex Regius). In spite of this, most editors chose never to restore er to es, Finnur Jónsson and the editors of the Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages series being important exceptions.

Etymology 2

From earlier es, from Proto-Norse ᛁᛊᛏ (ist), from Proto-Germanic *isti, first/third-person singular indicative present of *wesaną. The final -s was replaced by -r due to analogy to the plural forms of the verb.

Verb

er

  1. third-person singular indicative present of vera
Usage notes
  • See above; the same rules apply.
Descendants
  • Icelandic: er
  • Faroese: er
  • Norwegian:
    • Norwegian Bokmål: er
    • Norwegian Nynorsk: er
  • Jamtish: er
  • Elfdalian: ir
  • Old Swedish: ær
  • Danish: er
  • Old Gutnish: ier

References

  • "er", in Geir T. Zoëga (1910) A Concise Dictionary of Old Icelandic, Oxford: Clarendon Press

Old Prussian

Etymology

From Proto-Indo-European *h₂er-/*h₂r̥-. Cognate with Lithuanian ar̃ (also, if), Latvian ar (also), Ancient Greek ἄρ (ár, hence, as well as).

Preposition

er + (optionally another preposition)

  1. until, to, up to

Derived terms

Particle

er

  1. as well as

See also

References

  • Mažiulis, Vytautas (1988) “er”, in Prūsų kalbos etimologijos žodynas [Etymological dictionary of Old Prussian]‎ (in Lithuanian), volume 1, Vilnius: Mokslas, pages 282-283

Old Saxon

Pronunciation

Etymology 1

From Proto-West Germanic *airi, whence also Old English ær.

Adjective

ēr

  1. early
Declension


Adverb

ēr

  1. before, ere
  2. formerly

Conjunction

ēr

  1. before

Preposition

ēr (+ dative)

  1. before

Etymology 2

From Proto-Germanic *aiz, whence also Old English ār.

Noun

ēr ?

  1. copper, bronze
  2. ore
Descendants
  • Middle Low German: ēr

Etymology 3

From Proto-Germanic *airuz. Cognate with Old English ār, Old Norse árr, Gothic 𐌰𐌹𐍂𐌿𐍃 (airus).

Noun

ēr m

  1. messenger, herald

Old Tupi

Etymology

Back-formation from era (name).

Pronunciation

Adjective

er (IIa class pluriform, R1 rer, R2 ser)

  1. named; having a name

Derived terms

References

Palauan

Preposition

er

  1. Used to indicate a specific object noun phrase.
    el mo er a medadin the future.
    er a elecha el tutauthis morning.
    rakket er a tenistennis racket.

References

  • er in Palauan Language Online: Palauan-English Dictionary, at tekinged.com.
  • er in Palauan-English Dictionary, at trussel2.com.
  • er in Lewis S. Josephs, Edwin G. McManus, Masa-aki Emesiochel (1977) Palauan-English Dictionary, University Press of Hawaii, →ISBN, page 88.

Pennsylvania German

Etymology

Compare German er.

Pronunciation

Pronoun

er

  1. he

Declension

Polish

Pronunciation

Noun

er f

  1. genitive plural of era

Salar

Etymology 1

From Old Turkic erür.

Noun

er

  1. is, are

Etymology 2

Noun

er

  1. man

Etymology 3

Adjective

er

  1. (Mengda, Ejia) early

Adverb

er

  1. morning
  2. (Jiezi, Gaizi) long time ago
Derived terms

References

  • Tenishev, Edhem (1976) “eř, er”, in Stroj salárskovo jazyká [Grammar of Salar], Moscow, page 326
  • 马伟 (Ma Wei), 朝克 (Chao Ke) (2014) “er”, in 撒拉语366条会话读本 [Salar 366 Conversation Reader]‎, 1st edition, 社会科学文献出版社 (Social Science Literature Press), →ISBN, page 105
  • 马伟 (Ma Wei), 朝克 (Chao Ke) (2016) “er, erğine”, in 濒危语言——撒拉语研究 [Endangered Languages ​​- Salar Language Studies], 青海 (Qinghai): 国家社会科学基金项目 (National Social Science Foundation Project), pages 108, 262
  • 林 (Lin), 莲云 (Lianyun) (1985) “er”, in 撒拉语简志 [A Brief History of Salar]‎, Beijing: 民族出版社: 琴書店, →OCLC, page 33
  • Ma, Chengjun, Han, Lianye, Ma, Weisheng (December 2010) “er”, in 米娜瓦尔 艾比布拉 (Minavar Abibra), editor, 撒维汉词典 (Sāwéihàncídiǎn) [Salar-Uyghur-Chinese dictionary], 1st edition, Beijing, →ISBN, page 103

Saterland Frisian

Etymology

From Old Frisian -er, from Proto-West Germanic *iʀ. Cognates include West Frisian er and German er.

Pronunciation

Pronoun

er

  1. unstressed form of hie (he)

See also

References

  • Marron C. Fort (2015) “er”, in Saterfriesisches Wörterbuch mit einer phonologischen und grammatischen Übersicht, Buske, →ISBN

Scots

Etymology 1

Verb

er

  1. (South Scots) Second-person simple present form of ti be
  2. (South Scots) Plural simple present form of ti be
  3. (South Scots) First-person singular simple present form of an obscure form of ti be
    A'm er so!
    (please add an English translation of this usage example)
Usage notes

Used emphatically. See ir.

Etymology 2

Noun

er (plural ers)

  1. Shetland form of air (beach)

References

Swedish

Etymology

Contraction of earlier eder, from Old Swedish iþer, idher, from Old Norse iðʀ, from Proto-Germanic *izwiz, dative/accusative of *jūz, from Proto-Indo-European *yū́.

Pronunciation

Pronoun

er c (neuter possessive only ert, plural era)

  1. you (plural, object)
    Synonym: (formal, archaic) eder
  2. (possessive) your, yours; (speaking to more than one person, about one object)
    Synonyms: (informal) eran, (formal, archaic) eder
  3. (reflexive) reflexive of ni; compare yourselves
    Skulle ni vilja lära er jonglera?
    Would you guys like to learn how to juggle?

Usage notes

  • See ni for a note on its use as a courteous 2nd person singular.
  • Even though er (2) and its archaic form eder is the possessive pronoun, it does have a genitive form ers and eders, which is only used in expressions like Ers Majestät (Your Majesty) and Ers Höghet (Your Highness).

Declension

Anagrams

Turkish

Pronunciation

Etymology 1

Inherited from Ottoman Turkish ایر, ار, from Proto-Turkic *ẹ̄r (early). Related to Old Turkic 𐰼 (er).

Adjective

er

  1. (regionalism) early
    Synonym: erken

Etymology 2

Inherited from Ottoman Turkish ار, from Proto-Turkic *ēr (man). Related to noun-forming suffix -er and Old Turkic 𐰼 (er).

Noun

er (definite accusative eri, plural erler)

  1. brave
  2. man, male
  3. noble
  4. conscript, private (soldier of the lowest rank of the army)
  5. tribesman
  6. warrior
Declension
Inflection
Nominative er
Definite accusative eri
Singular Plural
Nominative er erler
Definite accusative eri erleri
Dative ere erlere
Locative erde erlerde
Ablative erden erlerden
Genitive erin erlerin
Possessive forms
Nominative
Singular Plural
1st singular erim erlerim
2nd singular erin erlerin
3rd singular eri erleri
1st plural erimiz erlerimiz
2nd plural eriniz erleriniz
3rd plural erleri erleri
Definite accusative
Singular Plural
1st singular erimi erlerimi
2nd singular erini erlerini
3rd singular erini erlerini
1st plural erimizi erlerimizi
2nd plural erinizi erlerinizi
3rd plural erlerini erlerini
Dative
Singular Plural
1st singular erime erlerime
2nd singular erine erlerine
3rd singular erine erlerine
1st plural erimize erlerimize
2nd plural erinize erlerinize
3rd plural erlerine erlerine
Locative
Singular Plural
1st singular erimde erlerimde
2nd singular erinde erlerinde
3rd singular erinde erlerinde
1st plural erimizde erlerimizde
2nd plural erinizde erlerinizde
3rd plural erlerinde erlerinde
Ablative
Singular Plural
1st singular erimden erlerimden
2nd singular erinden erlerinden
3rd singular erinden erlerinden
1st plural erimizden erlerimizden
2nd plural erinizden erlerinizden
3rd plural erlerinden erlerinden
Genitive
Singular Plural
1st singular erimin erlerimin
2nd singular erinin erlerinin
3rd singular erinin erlerinin
1st plural erimizin erlerimizin
2nd plural erinizin erlerinizin
3rd plural erlerinin erlerinin
Predicative forms
Singular Plural
1st singular erim erlerim
2nd singular ersin erlersin
3rd singular er
erdir
erler
erlerdir
1st plural eriz erleriz
2nd plural ersiniz erlersiniz
3rd plural erler erlerdir

Derived terms

Etymology 3

Verb

er

  1. second-person singular imperative of ermek

Uzbek

Other scripts
Cyrillic эр (er)
Latin
Perso-Arabic

Etymology

Inherited from Proto-Turkic *ēr.

Noun

er (plural erlar)

  1. man
    Synonym: erkak
  2. husband
    Synonym: zavj
    Antonym: xotin

Derived terms

Welsh

Pronunciation

Etymology 1

Ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *per- (in front). Compare Cornish er (for, by), Ancient Greek περί (perí, about, peri-), Latin per (through).

Conjunction

er

  1. although
    • 2018 September 28, “Cymraeg y Wladfa a Chymraeg Cymru - beth yw'r gwahaniaethau?”, in BBC Cymru Fyw:
      Nid y Sbaeneg (er y byddai hynny'n syniad da hefyd) ond Cymraeg arbennig y Wladfa.
      Not Spanish (although that would also be a good idea) but the particular Welsh of Y Wladfa.
    • 2019 June 13, Llinos Lee, “Y Barri: Mwy na dim ond 'Gavin & Stacey'”, in BBC Cymru Fyw:
      Ges i fy magu yn Y Barri, ac er mod i wedi symud i ffwrdd i'r brifysgol, …
      I was brought up in Barry, and although I moved away for university, …

Preposition

er (triggers soft mutation)

  1. (literary) since
    Synonym: ers
  2. (archaic) in spite of, despite
    Synonym: er gwaethaf
  3. (archaic) in order to
    Synonyms: er mwyn, i
  4. (archaic) for the sake of
    Synonym: er mwyn
  5. (obsolete) because of
    Synonyms: achos, o achos, oherwydd, oblegid
  6. (obsolete) for, in exchange for
    Synonym: am
  7. (obsolete) resulting in
  8. (obsolete) through
    Synonyms: trwy, drwy

Usage notes

  • In very formal or literary language, er is used when a specific start time is mentioned.
Saif y castell yma er 1284.
The castle has stood here since 1284.
Y mae’r castell yn adfail er pan fu farw’r brenin olaf.
The castle has been a ruin since the last king died.
Ers is used when the beginning of the time period is not mentioned.
Mae’r castell yma ers canrifoedd.
The castle has been here for centuries.
In less formal registers, ers is used in all instances.

Derived terms

Inflection

Etymology 2

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Noun

er f (plural eriau)

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter R/r.

See also

Mutation

Welsh mutation
radical soft nasal h-prothesis
er unchanged unchanged her
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

References

  1. ^ R. J. Thomas, G. A. Bevan, P. J. Donovan, A. Hawke et al., editors (1950–present), “er”, in Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru Online (in Welsh), University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh & Celtic Studies

West Frisian

Pronoun

er

  1. clitic form of hy used before the object or after the verb.