is

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Translingual

Symbol

is

  1. (international standards) ISO 639-1 language code for Icelandic.

English

English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

Etymology 1

From Middle English is, from Old English is, from Proto-West Germanic *ist, from Proto-Germanic *isti (a form of Proto-Germanic *wesaną (to be)), from Proto-Indo-European *h₁ésti (is).

Cognate with West Frisian is (is), Dutch is (is), German ist (is), Afrikaans is (am, are, is) Old Swedish är, er, Old Norse er, es. Also, via Proto-Indo-European, Latin esse (be)

Pronunciation

Verb

is

  1. third-person singular simple present indicative of be
    He is a doctor.
    • 1999 January 8, Ken Starr, quoting Bill Clinton, Referral from Independent Counsel Kenneth W. Starr in Conformity with the Requirements of Title 28, United States Code, Section 595(c) (Starr Report)‎, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, retrieved 14 February 2020, page 176:
      "It depends on what the meaning of the word 'is' is."
    • 2012, Robert Moore, Where the Gold is Buried, a legend of Old Fort Niagara, →ISBN, page 137:
      "It's not two weeks yet," I reminded her, hoping that might somehow cheer her. [] "Tomorrow is two weeks," Ruth said in a distant voice, staring into the flames.
  2. (now colloquial) Used in phrases with existential there (also here and where) when the semantic subject is plural.
    There is three of them there.
  3. (dialectal) present indicative of be; am, are, is.
    • 2001, “Witness (1 Hope)”, in Run Come save me, performed by Roots Manuva:
      Let the whole world know we's on some off-key tip
    • 2012, Trae Macklin, Flippin' The Hustle:
      "Them niggas shot my girl, yo! And I ain't gonna sleep until all of them niggas is dead!" RJ hissed.
    • 2013, Tu-Shonda Whitaker, The Ex Factor, page 270:
      "Y'all is some disorganized niggahs," Mama Byrd said.
    • 2016, “Don't Hurt Yourself”, in Lemonade, performed by Beyoncé:
      Who the fuck do you think I is? / You ain't married to no average bitch, boy
    • 2022, “Plan B”, performed by Megan Thee Stallion:
      Nigga, yeah, you's a bitch
    • 2023, “Barbie World”, in Barbie: The Album, performed by Nicki Minaj and Ice Spice:
      Like Jazzie, Stacie, Nicki / All of the Barbies is pretty / All of the Barbies is bad
Quotations
Alternative forms
Synonyms
Derived terms

See also

Etymology 2

Alternative pronunciation of us.

Pronoun

is

  1. (Geordie) Alternative spelling of us (me).

Etymology 3

i +‎ -s.

Noun

is

  1. (rare) Alternative form of i's.

Anagrams

Afar

Etymology 1

Related to Sidamo ise.

Pronunciation

Pronoun

ís

  1. she
See also

Etymology 2

Pronunciation

Pronoun

ís

  1. thyself, yourself
  2. himself, herself
  3. (Awash) myself
See also

References

  • E. M. Parker, R. J. Hayward (1985) “is”, in An Afar-English-French dictionary (with Grammatical Notes in English), University of London, →ISBN
  • Mohamed Hassan Kamil (2015) L’afar: description grammaticale d’une langue couchitique (Djibouti, Erythrée et Ethiopie), Paris: Université Sorbonne Paris Cité (doctoral thesis)

Afrikaans

Pronunciation

Verb

is

  1. am, are, is (present tense, all persons, plural and singular of wees, to be)
  2. Forms the perfect passive voice when followed by a past participle

Bagusa

Noun

is

  1. woman

References

Bavarian

Alternative forms

  • isch (South Bavarian, Tyrolean, South Tyrolean)

Etymology

From Middle High German ist, from Old High German ist, from Proto-West Germanic *ist, from Proto-Germanic *isti.

Pronunciation

Verb

is

  1. third-person singular present indicative of sei

Catalan

Noun

is

  1. plural of i

Cimbrian

Pronoun

is

  1. (Sette Comuni) Alternative form of es (it)

References

  • “is” in Martalar, Umberto Martello, Bellotto, Alfonso (1974) Dizionario della lingua Cimbra dei Sette Communi vicentini, 1st edition, Roana, Italy: Instituto di Cultura Cimbra A. Dal Pozzo

Danish

Etymology

From Old Norse íss, from Proto-Germanic *īsą, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁eyH-.

Pronunciation

Noun

is c (singular definite isen, plural indefinite is)

  1. (uncountable) ice (water in frozen form)
  2. (uncountable) ice, ice cream (dessert, not necessarily containing cream)
  3. (countable) ice, ice cream (ice dessert on a stick or in a wafer cone)

Inflection

Dutch

Pronunciation

Verb

is

  1. third-person singular present indicative of zijn; is, equals
    Twaalf min drie is negentwelve minus three equals nine

Adverb

is

  1. (informal, dialect) Misspelling of 's.

Anagrams

Gothic

Romanization

is

  1. Romanization of 𐌹𐍃

Hungarian

Etymology

Doublet of és (and).

Pronunciation

Adverb

is (not comparable) (clitic)

  1. also, too, as well
    Synonyms: szintén, ugyancsak, úgyszintén, éppúgy, (formal; the others are relatively literary in style) szintúgy
    Én is szeretem a csokit.I, too, like chocolate (aside from other people).
    (Én) a csokit is szeretem.I also like chocolate (aside from other things).
  2. even, up to, as much as, as long as
    Három óráig is tarthat a műtétThe operation may even take three hours.
  3. (after an interrogative word) again (used in a question to ask something one has forgotten)
    Hogy is hívják?What's that called, again?
  4. sure enough, indeed
    Synonyms: tényleg, valóban, csakugyan
    Aznapra esőt mondtak, és el is kezdett esni.Rain had been predicted for that day and, sure enough, it was beginning to rain. (literally, “They had said rain for…”)

Usage notes

When it is used with a concessive adverb (“no matter what/​who​/​when/how”, “however ”, “long as it was”, “even if…” etc.), it is traditionally placed after the verb, though it is common in colloquial style to use it after the adverb instead:

(traditionally, chiefly in literary style) Bármilyen hosszúra nyúlt is az előadás,…
(more recently) Bármilyen hosszúra is nyúlt az előadás,…
No matter how long the lecture​/​performance stretched,…

It applies to verb-final set phrases as well, similarly to érzi magát in this clause: még ha ettől rosszul érezzük is magunkat / …rosszul is érezzük magunkat (even if it makes us feel bad).

Derived terms

Compound words
Expressions

See also

Further reading

  • is in Bárczi, Géza and László Országh. A magyar nyelv értelmező szótára (‘The Explanatory Dictionary of the Hungarian Language’, abbr.: ÉrtSz.). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1959–1962. Fifth ed., 1992: →ISBN

Irish

Etymology 1

Inherited from Old Irish os.

Pronunciation

Conjunction

is

  1. reduced form of agus (and; as)
    Dia is Muire duit.
    Hello to you, too. (lit. God and Mary to you.)
    • 1899, Franz Nikolaus Finck, Die araner mundart, volume II (overall work in German), Marburg: Elwert’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, page 1:
      wil nə fatī xō mŭȧ, s dūŕc šē?
      [An bhfuil na fataí chomh maith is dúirt sé?]
      Are the potatoes as good as he said?
    • 1899, Franz Nikolaus Finck, Die araner mundart, volume II (overall work in German), Marburg: Elwert’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, page 1:
      ə ʒēĺǵə, l̄aurīr ə gūǵə mūn, ńī h-ønn̥̄ ī s ə ʒēlgə š agń̥ə
      [An Ghaeilge a labhraíthear i gCúige Mumhan, ní hionann í is an Ghaeilge seo againne.]
      The Irish used in Munster isn’t the same as our Irish.

Etymology 2

From Old Irish is (is), ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *h₁es- (to be).

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ɪsˠ/, /sˠ/ (before nouns and adjectives)
  • IPA(key): /ʃ/ (before the pronouns é, í, ea, iad)

Particle

is

  1. Present/future realis copula form
    Is múinteoir é Dónall.Dónall is a teacher. (definition: predicate is indefinite)
    Is é Dónall an múinteoir.Dónall is the teacher. (identification: predicate is definite)
    Is féidir liom snámh.I can swim. (idiomatic noun predicate)
    Is maith liom tae.I like tea. (idiomatic adjective predicate)
    Is mise a chonaic é.I'm the one who saw him. (compare Hiberno-English "'Tis I who saw him"; cleft sentence)
    Is é Dónall atá ina mhúinteoir.It's Dónall who is a teacher. (cleft sentence)
  2. Used to introduce the comparative/superlative form of adjectives
    an buachaill isthe bigger boy; the biggest boy
    Is mó an buachaill ná Séamas.
    The boy is bigger than James.
    Is é Séamas an buachaill is mó in Éirinn!
    James is the biggest boy in Ireland! (lit. "It is James (who is) the boy (who) is biggest in Ireland")
Usage notes
  • Used in the present and future for identification or definition of a subject as the person/object identified in the predicate of the sentence. Sometimes used with noun or adjective predicates, especially in certain fixed idiomatic phrases. Used to introduce cleft sentences, which are extremely common in Irish. It is not a verb.
  • The copula does not exist in the imperative and does not have a nominal form analogous to the verbal noun. The phrase i do (literally “be in your”) is used as the imperative instead (e.g. Bí i d’fhear! – “Be a man!” (lit. “Be in your man!”)), and equivalent non-copular nominal constructions must be used in place of their hypothetical copular equivalents: bheith ábalta (“to be able”, in place of the non-existent nominal form of is féidir), bheith ag iarraidh (“to want”, in place of the non-existent nominal form of is mian), bheith ina (“to be”, as with the imperative), etc.
  • In comparative/superlative formations, is is strictly speaking the relative of the copula, hence an buachaill is mó literally means "the boy who is biggest", i.e. "the biggest boy". The thing compared is introduced by (than).

Kwerba

Noun

is

  1. woman

References

Lacandon

Etymology

From Proto-Mayan *iihs.

Noun

is

  1. sweet potato

Derived terms

References

  • Baer, Phillip, Baer, Mary, Chan Kꞌin, Manuel, Chan Kꞌin, Antonio (2018) Diccionaro maya lacandón (Serie de vocabularios y diccionarios indígenas “Mariano Silva y Aceves”; 51)‎ (in Spanish), Instituto Lingüístico de Verano, A.C., pages 65–66

Latin

Etymology 1

From Proto-Italic *is, from Proto-Indo-European *éy. Cognate with Oscan 𐌉𐌆𐌉𐌊 (izik), Umbrian 𐌄𐌓𐌄 (ere), and further with Lithuanian jis, Proto-Slavic *jь.

Pronunciation

Pronoun

is (feminine ea, neuter id); demonstrative pronoun

  1. (pronoun) this or that man, woman or thing; he, she, it, they (previously introduced)
    1. Picks up the subject or object after an intervening clause, to avoid repeating the relative pronoun quī, or substitutes syntactically fronted expressions
  2. (correlative) that...which; he, she...who, it...that
    1. (anaphoric) of such a nature, degree, kind (previously mentioned or implied)
    2. (cataphoric) the following; of the following nature, degree, kind
  3. (determiner) this or that (as a noun phrase modifier)
  4. (with genus with nominative or modī with genitive) such a, that sort of
    eiusmodī sermōnēstalk of that kind
    • Marcus Valerius Probus, Fragmenta 66.29:
      'urbīs' an 'urbēs'. Nam cum id genus sīs, quod videō, ut sine iactūrā tuā peccēs, nihil perdēs utrum dīxeris.
      'urbīs' or 'urbēs'. For as far as I can see, you're the kind of man who doesn't lose sleep over his mistakes; as such you'll lose nothing whichever one you use.
  5. Substituting a clause.
    quod eius fierī possitas far as possible
    1. As an internal accusative: for that reason, on that account
      idque gaudeōand I'm glad about that
    2. Used in various prepositional phrases.
Usage notes

Latin is is an endophoric pronoun and determiner, which may be employed either as an anaphora or as a cataphora, meaning it serves as a reference to something preceding or following, respectively, in the text. Unlike a demonstrative such as ille or English this, is does not have a deictic function, meaning it cannot point to a referent in the world, but only one named in the text; nor can it be used exophorically as a 3d-person pronoun such as English (s)he that refers to something not already defined in the context but presumed to be known or deduceable by the addressee. Thus we see it used with first, second and third person.

The exophoric demonstratives/determiners in Latin are hic (proximal, near the speaker), iste (medial, near the listener), and ille (distal, far from both). Note that Latin doesn't have any 3rd-person pronouns, using the aforementioned demonstratives in their place.

Oblique cases are rare in elevated poetry.

Declension

Demonstrative pronoun.

Number Singular Plural
Case / Gender Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative is ea id 1

ī
eae ea
Genitive eius
ejus
eōrum
eum
eārum eōrum
eum
Dative 2
e͡i
ēī
2
e͡i
ēī
eae
2
e͡i
ēī
eīs1
iīs
īs
eīs1
iīs
īs
eābus
eīs1
iīs
īs
Accusative eum eam id eōs eās ea
Ablative eīs1
iīs
īs

1The nom./dat./abl. plural forms regularly developed into a monosyllable /iː(s)/, with later remodelling - compare the etymology of deus. This /iː/ was normally spelled as EI during and as II after the Republic; a disyllabic , spelled II, Iꟾ, appears in Silver Age poetry, while disyllabic eīs is only post-Classical. Other spellings include EEI(S), EIEI(S), IEI(S).
2The dat. singular is found spelled EIEI (here represented as ēī) and scanned as two longs in Plautus, but also as a monosyllable. The latter is its normal scansion in Classical. Other spellings include EEI, IEI.

Derived terms
See also

Etymology 2

Inflected form of (go).

Pronunciation

Verb

īs

  1. second-person singular present active indicative of

References

Middle Dutch

Verb

is

  1. third-person singular present indicative of wēsen

Middle English

Etymology 1

From Old English īs, from Proto-West Germanic *īs.

Alternative forms

Pronunciation

Noun

is (uncountable)

  1. ice (frozen water):
    1. A layer of frozen water as a surface.
    2. (rare) An individual portion of ice.
  2. (rare, figurative) That which is short-lived like ice.
  3. (rare) icy conditions
Derived terms
Descendants
  • English: ice (see there for further descendants)
  • Scots: ice
References

Etymology 2

From Old English is, third-person present singular of wesan (to be), from Proto-Germanic *isti, third-person present singular of *wesaną (to be, become), from Proto-Indo-European *h₁ésti.

Alternative forms

Pronunciation

Verb

is

  1. third-person singular present indicative of been
    Synonym: bith
Usage notes

This form is more common than bith for the third-person singular.

Descendants

Etymology 3

Determiner

is

  1. Alternative form of his (his)

Pronoun

is

  1. Alternative form of his (his)

Etymology 4

Pronoun

is

  1. Alternative form of his (her)

Etymology 5

Pronoun

is

  1. Alternative form of his (them)

Etymology 6

Noun

is (plural isnes)

  1. Alternative form of iren (iron)

Interjection

is

  1. as if, as if it were true, it could be, is it really?, what do you mean by that?, so you say expressing surprise

Usage notes

Usually spelled with the final letter repeated: iss, isss, issss.

Alternative forms

Norwegian Bokmål

Etymology

From Old Norse íss (ice), from Proto-Germanic *īsaz, a variant of *īsą (ice), from Proto-Indo-European *h₁eyH- (ice, frost).

Noun

is m (definite singular isen, indefinite plural is or iser, definite plural isene)

  1. (uncountable) ice, ice cream
  2. (countable) ice cream on a stick or cone.

Synonyms

Derived terms

References

Anagrams

Norwegian Nynorsk

Etymology

From Old Norse íss, from Proto-Germanic *īsą, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁eyH-. Akin to English ice.

Pronunciation

Noun

is m (definite singular isen, indefinite plural isar, definite plural isane)

  1. ice
  2. ice cream

Synonyms

Derived terms

References

Nyishi

Alternative forms

Etymology

From Proto-Tani *si, from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *si.

Noun

is

  1. water

References

  • P. T. Abraham (2005) A Grammar of Nyishi Language, Delhi: Farsight Publishers and Distributors

Old English

Etymology 1

From Proto-Germanic *īsą. See there for more.

Pronunciation

Noun

īs n

  1. ice
    • the Legend of St Andrew
      Ofer ēastrēamas īs bryċġode.
      The ice formed a bridge over the streams.
  2. the runic character (/i/ or /i:/)
Declension
Derived terms
Descendants

Etymology 2

From Proto-West Germanic *ist, from Proto-Germanic *isti (a form of Proto-Germanic *wesaną (to be)), from Proto-Indo-European *h₁ésti (is).

Alternative forms

Pronunciation

Verb

is

  1. third-person singular present indicative of wesan
Descendants
  • Middle English: is

Old High German

Etymology

From Proto-West Germanic *īs. Compare Old Saxon īs, Old English īs, Old Norse íss.

Noun

īs

  1. ice

Descendants

Old Irish

Alternative forms

Etymology

The lemma is itself is from Proto-Celtic *esti, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁ésti; other forms are from either *h₁es- or *bʰuH-.

Verb

is

  1. to be

For quotations using this term, see Citations:is.

Usage notes

This is the so-called "copula", which is distinct from the "substantive verb" at·tá. The copula is used with noun predicates and to introduce a cleft sentence.

Conjugation

See Appendix:Old Irish conjugation of is for the complete conjugation.

Derived terms

  • cesu (although... is)
  • condid (so that... is)
  • in (is... ?)
  • masu (if... is)
  • (is not)

Descendants

  • Irish: is
  • Manx: s’
  • Scottish Gaelic: is

See also

Further reading

Old Saxon

Etymology 1

From Proto-Germanic *it.

Pronoun

is (is)

  1. his, its
Declension

Etymology 2

Verb

is

  1. third-person singular present indicative of wesan

Etymology 3

From Proto-Germanic *īsą, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁eyH- (ice, frost). Cognate with Old Frisian īs (West Frisian iis), Old English īs (English ice), Dutch ijs, Old High German īs (German Eis), Old Norse íss (Danish and Swedish is).

Noun

īs n

  1. ice
  2. The runic character (/i/ or /i:/)
Declension


Descendants
  • Middle Low German: îs
    • Low German:
      • German Low German: Ies

Old Welsh

Etymology

From Proto-Celtic *esti. Cognate to Old Irish is.

Verb

is (third person singular present)

  1. to be

Inflection

Listed exhaustively in the Etymological Glossary of Old Welsh are the following conjugated forms:

  • 3rd person singular present: is, iu, oi, hois, hoys
  • 3rd person singular present relative: issi, issid
  • 3rd person singular present negative: nit
  • 3rd person plural present: hint, int
  • 3rd person singular imperfect: hoid, oid
  • 3rd person singular imperfect subjunctive: be
  • 3rd person plural imperfect subjunctive: beinn
  • 3rd person singular present habitual: bi, bid bit
  • 3rd person singular present subjunctive: boi, boit
  • 3rd person singular preterite: bu

Descendants

  • Welsh: bod (finite forms)

References

  1. ^ Falileyev, Alexander (2000) Etymological Glossary of Old Welsh (Buchreihe der Zeitschrift für celtische Philologie; 18), Walter de Gruyter, →ISBN, pages 158-159

Onondaga

Etymology

From Proto-North Iroquoian *iːts.

Pronoun

is

  1. you

References

  • Hanni Woodbury (2018) A Reference Grammar of the Onondaga Language, University of Toronto, page 309

Portuguese

Pronunciation

 

  • Rhymes: (Brazil) -is, (Portugal, Rio de Janeiro) -iʃ
  • Hyphenation: is

Noun

is

  1. plural of i
    • 2003, J. K. Rowling, Lia Wyler, Harry Potter e a Ordem da Fênix, Rocco, page 411:
      Se você pôs os pingos nos is e cortou os tês então pode fazer o que quiser!
      If you've dotted your I's and crossed your T's, then you can do whatever you want!

Sardinian

Etymology

From syllabic apocope of issos, issas, from Latin ipsōs, ipsās, masculine and feminine accusative plural forms of ipse (himself).

Pronunciation

Article

is m pl or f pl (Campidanese)

  1. plural of su: the (masculine plural definite article)
  2. plural of sa: the (feminine plural definite article)

See also

References

  • Rubattu, Antoninu (2006) Dizionario universale della lingua di Sardegna, 2nd edition, Sassari: Edes
  • Wagner, Max Leopold (1960–1964) “ísse”, in Dizionario etimologico sardo, Heidelberg

Scots

Adverb

is (not comparable)

  1. (Southern Scots) as

Synonyms

Conjunction

is

  1. (Southern Scots) as

Synonyms

Pronoun

is (personal, non-emphatic)

  1. (Southern Scots) me

See also

  • A
  • mei (emphatic variant)

Verb

is

  1. third-person singular simple present indicative form of be

See also

Scottish Gaelic

Pronunciation

Etymology 1

Cognate with Irish is.

Conjunction

is

  1. Clipping of agus (and).
Usage notes
  • Is is often shortened further to 's.

Etymology 2

From Old Irish is. Cognate with Irish is and Manx s'.

Verb

is

  1. (copulative) am, is, are
Usage notes
  • Is is often shortened to 's.
  • Is is used when linking the subject of a sentence with an object ("somebody is somebody", "somebody is something", "something is something"), otherwise forms of the verb bi are used:
    Is mise Dòmhnall.I am Donald.
    Tha mise anns an t-seòmar.I am in the room.
Inflection

References

  • Colin Mark (2003) “is”, in The Gaelic-English dictionary, London: Routledge, →ISBN, page 368

Swedish

Etymology

From Old Swedish is, from Old Norse íss, from Proto-Germanic *īsą, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁eyH-.

Pronunciation

Noun

is c

  1. (uncountable) ice; frozen water.
  2. (countable) ice; a sheet of ice lying on a body of water.

Declension

Declension of is 
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative is isen isar isarna
Genitive is isens isars isarnas

References

Tok Pisin

Etymology

From English East.

Noun

is

  1. East

Turkish

Etymology

From Proto-Turkic *ï̄ĺ(č) (soot, dirty smoke).

Pronunciation

Noun

is (definite accusative isi, plural isler)

  1. soot
  2. fume (solid deposit)
  3. kohl

Declension

Inflection
Nominative is
Definite accusative isi
Singular Plural
Nominative is isler
Definite accusative isi isleri
Dative ise islere
Locative iste islerde
Ablative isten islerden
Genitive isin islerin
Possessive forms
Nominative
Singular Plural
1st singular isim islerim
2nd singular isin islerin
3rd singular isi isleri
1st plural isimiz islerimiz
2nd plural isiniz isleriniz
3rd plural isleri isleri
Definite accusative
Singular Plural
1st singular isimi islerimi
2nd singular isini islerini
3rd singular isini islerini
1st plural isimizi islerimizi
2nd plural isinizi islerinizi
3rd plural islerini islerini
Dative
Singular Plural
1st singular isime islerime
2nd singular isine islerine
3rd singular isine islerine
1st plural isimize islerimize
2nd plural isinize islerinize
3rd plural islerine islerine
Locative
Singular Plural
1st singular isimde islerimde
2nd singular isinde islerinde
3rd singular isinde islerinde
1st plural isimizde islerimizde
2nd plural isinizde islerinizde
3rd plural islerinde islerinde
Ablative
Singular Plural
1st singular isimden islerimden
2nd singular isinden islerinden
3rd singular isinden islerinden
1st plural isimizden islerimizden
2nd plural isinizden islerinizden
3rd plural islerinden islerinden
Genitive
Singular Plural
1st singular isimin islerimin
2nd singular isinin islerinin
3rd singular isinin islerinin
1st plural isimizin islerimizin
2nd plural isinizin islerinizin
3rd plural islerinin islerinin

Derived terms

Volapük

Adverb

is

  1. here
    • 1931, Arie de Jong, Gramat Volapüka, § 256:
      Ünü tim kinik janedoy-li is?
      At what time does one have breakfast here?

Welsh

Alternative forms

Etymology

From Middle Welsh is, from Proto-Celtic *ɸīssu (under), from Proto-Indo-European *pedsú, locative plural of *pṓds (foot). Cognate with Old Irish ís.

Pronunciation

Adjective

is

  1. comparative degree of isel: lower

Preposition

is

  1. lower than, under
  • is- (sub-)
  • (literary): islaw (beneath)

Mutation

Welsh mutation
radical soft nasal h-prothesis
is unchanged unchanged his
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

West Frisian

Etymology

From Old Frisian is, from Proto-Germanic *isti (form of *wesaną (to be)). Cognate with English is, Dutch is.

Pronunciation

Verb

is

  1. third person singular indicative of wêze
    • 1997, Sjoerd Bottema, "Dwersreed", Trotwaer, vol. 29, no. 5, page 204.
      Ik soe net witte wat myn ‘favorite plakje’ is om te fantasearjen, sa'n plak ha ik net, no ja soms al, mar dat is in plak dêr't ik yn it iepenbier leaver net oer praat, net mei myn learlingen alteast, en al hielendal net oer hoe't ik my dêr hâld en draach en wat myn lichemshâlding is.
      (please add an English translation of this quotation)

Yola

Alternative forms

Etymology

From Middle English is, es, from Old English is.

Pronunciation

Verb

is

  1. is
    Synonym: beeth
    • 1867, GLOSSARY OF THE DIALECT OF FORTH AND BARGY, page 44:
      Doost thou know fidi is a hamaron?
      Do you know where is the horse-collar?
    • 1867, GLOSSARY OF THE DIALECT OF FORTH AND BARGY, page 65:
      Mee coat is ee-runt.
      My coat is torn.
    • 1867, GLOSSARY OF THE DIALECT OF FORTH AND BARGY, page 71:
      A truckle is ee-teap'd.
      The car is overturned.
    • 1867, GLOSSARY OF THE DIALECT OF FORTH AND BARGY, page 78:
      A wuf is pa varreen.
      The gad is on the headland.
  2. are
    Synonym: yarth
    • 1867, GLOSSARY OF THE DIALECT OF FORTH AND BARGY, page 49:
      Banès is ee-kearnt.
      Beans are beginning to ripen in the pod.
    • 1867, GLOSSARY OF THE DIALECT OF FORTH AND BARGY, page 50:
      Mee hoanès is ee-kimmelt.
      My hands are benumbed with cold.

References

  • Jacob Poole (d. 1827) (before 1828) William Barnes, editor, A Glossary, With some Pieces of Verse, of the old Dialect of the English Colony in the Baronies of Forth and Bargy, County of Wexford, Ireland, London: J. Russell Smith, published 1867, page 44