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( international standards ) ISO 639-2 & ISO 639-3 language code for Kirundi .
Middle English , runnen rennen ( “ to run ” ), alteration (due to the past participle , runne ,
runnen ) of yronne Middle English rinnen ( “ to run ” ), from Old English , rinnan iernan ( “ to run ” ) and Old Norse rinna ( “ to run ” ), both from Proto-Germanic *rinnaną ( “ to run ” ) (compare also *rannijaną ( “ to make run ” )), from Proto-Indo-European *h₃reyH- ( “ to boil, churn ” ).
Scots rin ( “ to run ” ), West Frisian rinne ( “ to walk, march ” ), Dutch rennen ( “ to run, race ” ), Alemannic German ränne ( “ to run ” ), German rennen ( “ to run, race ” ), rinnen ( “ to flow ” ), , Rhein Danish rende ( “ to run ” ), Swedish ränna ( “ to run ” ), Swedish rinna ( “ to flow ” ), Icelandic renna ( “ to flow ” ). Non-Germanic cognates include Albanian rend ( “ to run, run after ” ). See .
A runner running ( sense 1.4)
Women running ( sense 1.4) in a 100-meter foot race
run ( third-person singular simple present , runs present participle , running simple past , ran past participle ) run
To move swiftly.
To ( intransitive ) move forward quickly upon two feet by alternately making a short jump off either foot. ( Compare . walk )
Run, Sarah, run!
, 1967 Barbara Sleigh, , Sevenoaks, Kent: Bloomsbury, published Jessamy 1993, , page →ISBN 122: Through the open front door ran Jessamy, down the steps to where Kitto was sitting at the bottom with the pram beside him. For more quotations using this term, see Citations:run.
To ( intransitive ) go at a fast pace; to move quickly.
The horse ran the length of the track.
I have been running all over the building looking for him. Sorry, I've got to run; my house is on fire.
To ( transitive ) cause to move quickly or lightly.
Every day I run my dog across the field and back.
I'll just run the vacuum cleaner over the carpet. Run your fingers through my hair.
To ( transitive or intransitive ) compete in a race.
The horse will run the Preakness next year. I'm not ready to run a marathon.
To ( transitive ) transport someone or something, notionally at a brisk pace.
Could you run me over to the store? Please run this report upstairs to director's office.
Of a means of transportation: to ( transitive , intransitive ) travel (a route).
the bus (train, plane, ferry boat, etc) runs between Newport and Riverside
, Karl-Heinz Reger, Nelles Verlag Staff, 1997 Malaysia - Singapore - Brunei, Hunter Publishing, Inc, , page →ISBN 91: Small planes run between Alor and Langkawi. BUS: Express busses leave the bus terminal on the corner of Jl. Langgar and Jl. Stesyen for K. Kedah, [… ] 2013 April 15, Mary Ann Sternberg, Along the River Road: Past and Present on Louisiana's Historic Byway, LSU Press, , page →ISBN 62: The first steam ferry or tug, the Little Minnie, ran the river in the 1870s. When vehicles were to cross, a barge was affixed to the Minnie to carry them. The Bella Israel, a successor to the Little Minnie, sank in 1894 and 62 Along the [… ]
To ( transitive ) transit a length of a river, as in whitewater rafting.
, United States. Forest Service. Rocky Mountain Region, 1979 Piedra River: Final Environmental Impact Statement & Wild & Scenic River Study, page 74: To put it frankly, if you people had to hire others to run the river and survey it for you, if, in short, you can't even run it yourself, why do think you can decide who is and who is not competent? River running, as has been [… ]
Of fish, to ( intransitive ) migrate for spawning.
To carry (a ( American football , transitive or intransitive ) football) down the field, as opposed to passing or kicking.
2019 December 29, Chad Finn, “24 thoughts on the Patriots’ loss to the Dolphins”, in Boston Globe : Then, on their second possession, Isaiah Ford ran for 11 yards after abandoning a flea flicker. [...] The Patriots ran the ball just 27 times despite averaging 5 yards per carry.
To achieve or perform by running or as if by running.
( transitive ) The horse ran a great race.
To ( intransitive ) flee from a danger or towards help.
Whenever things get tough, she cuts and runs. When he's broke, he runs to me for money.
To ( figurative , transitive ) pass (without stopping), typically a stop signal, stop sign , or duty to yield the right of way.
If you have a collision with a vehicle oncoming from the right, after having run priority to the right, you are at fault. To juggle a pattern ( transitive , juggling , colloquial ) continuously, as opposed to starting and stopping quickly.
( fluids )
Of a ( intransitive ) liquid, to flow.
The river runs through the forest. There's blood running down your leg.
To move or ( intransitive , figuratively ) spread quickly.
There's a strange story running around the neighborhood. The flu is running through my daughter's kindergarten.
Of an object, to have a liquid ( intransitive ) flowing from it.
Your nose is running. Why is the hose still running?
To make a liquid flow; to make liquid flow from or into an object.
( transitive )
You'll have to run the water a while before it gets hot. Could you run a bath for me, please?
To become ( intransitive ) liquid; to melt.
[ 1717 18 a. ], Ovid, translated by CE Joseph Addison, Ovid's Metamorphoses in fifteen books. Translated by the most eminent hands. Adorn'd with sculptures , Book the Third, The Story of Narcissus, page 92: As Wax dissolves, as Ice begins to run, , 1729 John Woodward, An Attempt Towards a Natural History of the Fossils of England, Tome I, page 223: The Sussex ores run pretty freely in the Fire for Iron-Ores; otherwise they would hardly be worth working.
To ( intransitive ) leak or spread in an undesirable fashion; to bleed (especially used of dye or paint).
During washing, the red from the rug ran onto the white sheet, staining it pink. To fuse; to shape; to mould; to cast.
to run bullets , 1718 Henry Felton, A Dissertation on Reading the Classics, and Forming a Just Style , page 6: But, my Lord, the fairest Diamonds are rough till they are polished, and the purest Gold must be run and washed, and sifted in the Oar.
To sail before the wind, in distinction from ( nautical , of a vessel ) reaching or sailing close-hauled.
To ( transitive ) control or manage; to be in charge of.
My uncle ran a corner store for forty years.
She runs the fundraising.
My parents think they run my life. He is running the candidate's expensive campaign.
1972 December 29, Richard Schickel, “Masterpieces underrated and overlooked”, in , volume Life 73, number 25, page : 22 A friend of mine who runs an intellectual magazine was grousing about his movie critic, complaining that though the fellow had liked The Godfather (page 58), he had neglected to label it clearly as a masterpiece.
2013 May 11, “ What a waste”, in , volume The Economist 407, number 8835, page 12: India is run by gerontocrats and epigones: grey hairs and groomed heirs. For more quotations using this term, see Citations:run.
To be a ( intransitive ) candidate in an election.
I have decided to run for governor of California. We're trying to find somebody to run against him next year. To make participate in certain kinds of competitions.
To make run in a race.
( transitive ) He ran his best horse in the Derby. To make run in an election.
( transitive ) The Green Party is running twenty candidates in this election. To exert continuous activity; to proceed.
to run through life; to run in a circle
To be ( intransitive ) presented in the media.
The story will run on the 6-o'clock news.
The latest Robin Williams movie is running at the Silver City theatre. Her picture ran on the front page of the newspaper.
To ( transitive ) print or broadcast in the media.
run a story; run an ad
To ( transitive ) smuggle ( illegal goods).
to run guns; to run rum , Jonathan Swift, “An answer to a paper, called 1728 A memorial of the poor inhabitants, tradesmen, and labourers of the kingdom of Ireland”, in The Works of Dr. Jonathan Swift, published 1757, page 175: [...]whereas in the business of laying heavy impositions two and two never made more than one ; which happens by lessening the import, and the strong temptation of running such goods as paid high duties
To ( transitive , agriculture ) sort through a large volume of produce in quality control.
Looks like we're gonna have to run the tomatoes again. To extend or persist, statically or dynamically, through space or time.
To ( intransitive ) extend in space or through a range (often with a measure phrase).
The border runs for 3000 miles.
The leash runs along a wire.
The grain of the wood runs to the right on this table. It ran in quality from excellent to substandard.
To ( intransitive ) extend in time, to last, to continue (usually with a measure phrase).
The sale will run for ten days.
The contract runs through 2008.
The meeting ran late.
The book runs 655 pages. The speech runs as follows: …
To make something extend in space.
( transitive ) I need to run this wire along the wall.
Of a ( intransitive ) machine, including computer programs, to be operating or working normally.
My car stopped running.
That computer runs twenty-four hours a day. Buses don't run here on Sunday. To make a machine ( transitive ) operate.
It's full. You can run the dishwasher now. Don't run the engine so fast.
To ( transitive ) execute or carry out a plan, procedure , or program.
They ran twenty blood tests on me and they still don't know what's wrong.
Our coach had us running plays for the whole practice.
I will run the sample.
Don't run that software unless you have permission. My computer is too old to run the new OS. To pass or go quickly in thought or conversation.
to run from one subject to another , Joseph Addison, “An essay on the Georgics”, in 1697 The Works of Virgil: Containing His Pastorals, Georgics, and Aeneis , by John Dryden: Virgil was so well acquainted with this Secret, that to set off his first Georgic, he has run into a set of Precepts, which are almost foreign to his Subject,
To become ( copulative ) different in a way mentioned (usually to become worse).
Our supplies are running low. They frequently overspent and soon ran into debt.
, Joseph Addison, 1712 , act IV, scene i: Cato, a Tragedy Have I not cause to rave, and beat my breast, / To rend my heart with grief and run distracted?
, 1968 Paul Simon (lyrics and music), “The Boxer”: I was no more than a boy / In the company of strangers / In the quiet of the railway station / Running scared. For more quotations using this term, see Citations:run.
To ( transitive ) cost a large amount of money.
Buying a new laptop will run you a thousand dollars. Laptops run about a thousand dollars apiece.
Of ( intransitive ) stitches or stitched clothing, to unravel.
My stocking is running.
To cause stitched clothing to unravel.
( transitive ) 1977-1980, Lou Sullivan, personal diary, quoted in 2019, Ellis Martin, Zach Ozma (editors), We Both Laughed In Pleasure
He took off the nylons & had runned one. He said "now I really look like a street whore!" To pursue in thought; to carry in contemplation.
, 1692 Robert South, “Discourse I. The creation of man in God’s image”, in Discourses on Various Subjects and Occasions , published 1827, page 1: To run the world back to its first original and infancy, and, as it were, to view nature in its cradle, , 1695 Jeremy Collier, “A Thought”, in Miscellanies upon Moral Subjects by Jeremy Collier , page 88: Methinks, if it might be, I would gladly understand the Formation of a Soul, run it up to its Punctum Saliens, and see it beat the first conscious Pulse. To cause to enter; to thrust.
to run a sword into or through the body; to run a nail into one's foot
, 1977 Agatha Christie, chapter 4, in An Autobiography, part II, London: Collins, : →ISBN There was also hairdressing: hairdressing, too, really was hairdressing in those times — no running a comb through it and that was that. It was curled, frizzed, waved, put in curlers overnight, waved with hot tongs; [… ] . For more quotations using this term, see Citations:run. To drive or force; to cause, or permit, to be driven.
, 1691 John Ray, The Wisdom of God Manifested in the Works of the Creation: [...]besides all this, a talkative person must needs be impertinent, and speak many idle words, and so render himself burdensome and odious to Company, and may perchance run himself upon great Inconveniences, by blabbing out his own or other’s Secrets; , 1706 John Locke, Of the Conduct of the Understanding , Section 24. Partiality: [...]and others, accustomed to retired speculations, run natural philosophy into metaphysical notions and the abstract generalities of logic ; To cause to be drawn; to mark out; to indicate; to determine.
to run a line To encounter or incur (a danger or risk).
to run the risk of losing one's life To put at hazard; to venture; to risk.
, 1702–1704 Edward [Hyde, 1st] Earl of Clarendon, “ (please specify |book=I to XVI)”, in , Oxford, Oxfordshire: Printed at the Theater, published The History of the Rebellion and Civil Wars in England, Begun in the Year 1641. 1707, : →OCLC He would himself be in the Highlands to receive them, and run his fortune with them. To tease with sarcasms and ridicule.
To sew (a seam) by passing the needle through material in a continuous line, generally taking a series of stitches on the needle at the same time.
To control or have precedence in a card game.
Every three or four hands he would run the table. To be in form thus, as a combination of words.
[ 1722 1647], Robert Sanderson, translated by Thomas Lewis, A Preservative Against Schism and Rebellion, in the Most Trying Times , volume 1, translation of De juramenti promissorii obligatione, page 355: Which Sovereignity, with us, so undoubtedly resideth in the Person of the King, that his ordinary style runneth — Our Sovereign Lord the King
, 1922 Ben Travers, chapter 5, in A Cuckoo in the Nest : The departure was not unduly prolonged. In the road Mr. Love and the driver favoured the company with a brief chanty running: “Got it?—No, I ain't, 'old on,—Got it? Got it?—No, 'old on sir.” For more quotations using this term, see Citations:run.
To be popularly known; to be generally received.
( archaic )
c. , 1685 William Temple, Upon the Gardens of Epicurus , published 1908, page 27: [...]great captains, and even consular men, who first brought them over, took pride in giving them their own names (by which they run a great while in Rome) , 1603 Richard Knolles, The Generall Historie of the Turkes,, London: Adam Islip, : →OCLC Neither was he ignorant what report ran of himselfe. To have growth or development.
Boys and girls run up rapidly. , 1707 J Mortimer, The Whole Art of Husbandry; or, The Way of Managing and Improving of Land., 2nd edition, London: J H for H Mortlock , and J Robinson , published 1708, : →OCLC or the Richness of the Ground cause them to run too much to Leaves To tend, as to an effect or consequence; to incline.
, 1625 Francis [Bacon], “Of Nature in Men”, in , 3rd edition, London: The Essayes Iohn Haviland for Hanna Barret, : →OCLC A man's nature runs either to herbs or weeds. , Jonathan Swift, “The Sentiments of a Church-of-England Man with respect to Religion and Government”, in 1708 The Works of Dr. Jonathan Swift, published 1757, page 235: It hath been observed, that the temperate climates usually run into moderate governments, and the extremes into despotic power. To have a legal course; to be attached; to continue in force, effect, or operation; to follow; to go in company.
Certain covenants run with the land. c. , 1665 Josiah Child, Discourse on Trade: Customs run only upon our goods imported or exported, and that but once for all; whereas interest runs as well upon our ships as goods, and must be yearly paid. To
encounter or suffer (a particular, usually bad, fate or misfortune).
To strike (the ball) in such a way as to cause it to run along the ground, as when approaching a hole. ( golf )
To ( video games , rare ) . speedrun To ( sports , especially baseball ) eject from a game or match.
Jackson got himself run in the top of the sixth for arguing a borderline strike three call.
to move quickly on two feet
аҩра ( ajʷra ) Afar:
vrapoj (sq) American Sign Language:
S@SideChesthigh-S@SideChesthigh CirclesMidline-CirclesMidline Arabic:
رَكَضَ (ar) ( rakaḍa ), جَرَى (ar) ( jarā )
جري ( gerī ) Hijazi Arabic:
جري ( jirī ) Moroccan Arabic:
جْرى ( jra ) South Levantine Arabic: ركض ( rakaḍ ) Armenian:
վազել (hy) ( vazel ) Aromanian:
, fug alag Assamese:
দৌৰা ( doura ) Assyrian Neo-Aramaic:
ܪܵܚܹܛ ( raḳeṭ ) Asturian:
correr (ast) Avar:
рекеризе ( rekerize ) Azerbaijani:
йүгереү ( yügerew ) Basque:
korrika egin , (eu) lasterka egin (eu) Belarusian:
бе́гаць impf ( bjéhacʹ ), пабе́гаць pf ( pabjéhacʹ ) ( abstract ), бе́гчы impf ( bjéhčy ) ( concrete ), пабе́гчы pf ( pabjéhčy ) Bengali:
দৌড়ানো (bn) ( dōuṛanō ) Bikol Central:
dalagan (bcl) Breton:
redek (br) Bulgarian:
бя́гам (bg) impf ( bjágam ) ( abstract ), ти́чам (bg) impf ( tíčam ) Burmese:
ပြေး (my) ( pre: ) Catalan:
córrer (ca) Cebuano:
дада ( dada ), ида ( ida ) Cherokee:
ᎠᏟ ( atli ) Cheyenne:
走 ( zau 2 ), 跑 ( paau 2 ) Dungan:
по ( po ) Gan:
跑 ( pau 3 ) Hakka:
走 ( chéu ) Jin:
跑 ( pau 2 ) Mandarin:
跑 (zh) ( pǎo ), 奔跑 (zh) ( bēnpǎo ), 走 (zh) ( zǒu ) ( literary ) Min Bei:
走 ( cě ) Min Dong:
䟛 ( bié ) Min Nan:
走 (zh-min-nan) ( cháu ) Wu:
奔 ( 1pen ), 跑 ( 6bau ) Xiang: 跑 ( pau 3 ) Chuvash:
чуп ( čup ) Crimean Tatar:
, çapmaq ( northern dialect ) cuvurmaq Czech:
běhat (cs) impf ( abstract ), běžet (cs) impf ( concrete ) Dalmatian:
løbe (da) Dutch:
rennen , (nl) lopen (nl) Esperanto:
kuri (eo) Estonian:
jooksma (et) Even:
тут- ( tut- ) Evenki:
тукса- ( tuksa- ) Ewe:
ƒu du Faroese:
renna (fo) Finnish:
juosta (fi) French:
courir (fr) Friulian:
correr (gl) Georgian:
სირბილი ( sirbili ) German:
rennen , (de) laufen
(de) Alemannic German: lauffe Gothic:
𐌸𐍂𐌰𐌲𐌾𐌰𐌽 ( þragjan ), 𐍂𐌹𐌽𐌽𐌰𐌽 ( rinnan ) Greek:
τρέχω (el) ( trécho )
Ancient: τρέχω ( trékhō ), θέω ( théō ) Guaraní:
દોડવું ( doḍvũ ) Haitian Creole:
רָץ (he) ( rats ) Higaonon:
दौड़ना (hi) ( dauṛnā ) Hungarian:
fut , (hu) szalad (hu) Icelandic:
hlaupa (is) Ido:
kurar , (io) hastar (io) Indonesian:
lari , (id) berlari , (id) menjalankan (id) Ingrian:
вада ( vada ) Irish:
correre (it) Japanese:
走る (ja) ( はしる, hashiru ) Javanese:
mlayu (jv) Kabyle:
ಓಡು (kn) ( ōḍu ) Kazakh:
жүгіру ( jügıru ) Khmer:
រត់ (km) ( rŭət ) Korean:
달리다 (ko) ( dallida ), 뛰다 (ko) ( ttwida ) Kurdish:
ڕاکردن ( rakirdin ) Northern Kurdish: bezîn , (ku) revîn , (ku) bazdan (ku) Kyrgyz:
жүгүрүү (ky) ( žügürüü ) Lao:
ແລ່ນ ( lǣn ) Latgalian:
currō (la) Latvian:
, pota kopota Lithuanian:
bėgti (lt) Lombard:
, lafen rennen Macedonian:
т́рча impf ( t́rča ), истрча pf ( istrča ) Malay:
, berlari lari (ms) Malayalam:
ഓടുക (ml) ( ōṭuka ) Maltese:
ᡶᡝᡴᠰᡳᠮᠪᡳ ( feksimbi ) Manx:
гүйх (mn) ( güjx ) Mongolian: ᠭᠦᠶᠦᠬᠦ ( güyükü ) Nanai:
туту- ( tutu- ) Nepali:
दगुर्नु (ne) ( dagurnu ), दौडनु ( dauṛanu ) North Frisian:
( Föhr-Amrum ) , luup laap ( Sylt ) Northern Altai:
чӱгӱрер ( čügürer ) Northern Ohlone:
Bokmål: løpe , (no) springe (no) Occitan:
córrer (oc) Odia:
ଦଉଡ଼ିବା (or) ( dôuṛiba ), ଦୌଡ଼ିବା ( dôuṛiba ), ଧାଇଁବା (or) ( dhaim̐ba ), ନର୍ଦିବା (or) ( nôrdiba ), ନରର୍ଦ୍ଦିବା ( nôrôrddiba ), ଘଟକିବା ( ghôṭôkiba ), ଧୁପିବା (or) ( dhupiba ), ଭେଡ଼ିବା (or) ( bheṛiba ), ଧପଡ଼ିବା (or) ( dhôpôṛiba ), ଧପାଲିବା (or) ( dhôpaliba ), ଧବୁଡ଼ିବା (or) ( dhôbuṛiba ) Old Church Slavonic:
бѣгати impf ( běgati ) ( abstract ), бѣжати impf ( běžati ) ( concrete ) Glagolitic: ⰱⱑⰳⰰⱅⰹ impf ( běgati ) ( abstract ), ⰱⱑⰶⰰⱅⰹ impf ( běžati ) ( concrete ) Old East Slavic:
бѣгати impf ( běgati ) ( abstract ), бѣжати impf ( běžati ) ( concrete ) Old English:
rinnan Old Javanese:
згъорын ( zǧoryn ) Ottoman Turkish:
قوشمق ( koşmak ), یلمك ( yelmek ) Pashto:
الاکول ( alākawəl ) Persian:
دَویدَن (fa) ( davidan ) Polabian:
bezăt impf ( concrete ) Polish:
biegać (pl) impf ( abstract ), biec (pl) impf ( concrete ) Portuguese:
correr (pt) Punjabi:
ਦੌੜਣਾ ( dauṛṇā ) Quechua:
alerga , (ro) fugi (ro) Romansch:
, currer , cuorer , curer , curir , correr cuorrer Russian:
бе́гать (ru) impf ( bégatʹ ), побе́гать (ru) pf ( pobégatʹ ) ( abstract ), бежа́ть (ru) impf ( bežátʹ ), побежа́ть (ru) pf ( pobežátʹ ) ( concrete ) Sanskrit:
द्रवति (sa) ( dravati ), धावति (sa) ( dhāvati ) Sardinian:
, cúrrere , curri cúrriri Scots:
rin Scottish Gaelic:
тр̀чати impf Roman: tr̀čati (sh) impf Sicilian:
cùrriri (scn) Sindhi:
දුවනවා ( duwanawā ) Slovak:
behať impf ( abstract ), bežať impf ( concrete ) Slovene:
teči (sl) impf Slovincian:
bjìe̯găc impf ( abstract ) Somali:
běgaś impf ( abstract ), běžaś impf ( concrete ) Upper Sorbian: běhać impf ( abstract ), běžeć impf ( concrete ) Southern Altai:
јӱгӱрер ( ǰügürer ) Spanish:
correr (es) Swahili:
springa , (sv) löpa (sv) Tagalog:
, takbo tumakbo Tajik:
давидан (tg) ( davidan ) Tamil:
ஓடு (ta) ( ōṭu ) Tatar:
йөгерергә (tt) ( yögerergä ) Tausug:
, dagan dumagan Telugu:
పరుగెత్తు (te) ( parugettu ) Tetum:
วิ่ง (th) ( wîng ) Turkish:
koşmak (tr) Turkmen:
маңнаар ( mañnaar ), чүгүрер ( çügürer ) Ukrainian:
бі́гати (uk) impf ( bíhaty ) ( abstract ), бі́гти (uk) impf ( bíhty ) ( concrete ) Urdu:
دَوڑْنا ( dauṛnā ) Uyghur:
يۈگۈرمەك ( yügürmek ) Uzbek:
yugurmoq (uz) Venetian:
, córar , córer , córare corer (vec) Vietnamese:
chạy (vi) Walloon:
cori (wa) Waray-Waray:
, dalagan dagan Welsh:
rhedeg (cy) Western Bukidnon Manobo:
давак ( davak ) Yiddish: לויפֿן ( loyfn )
to move quickly
córrer (ca) Finnish:
juosta , (fi) rientää , (fi) rynnätä (fi) Galician:
correr (gl) German:
laufen (de) Japanese:
走る (ja) ( はしる, hashiru ) Polish:
biec (pl) , impf biegać (pl) impf Portuguese:
correr (pt) Quechua:
бе́гать (ru) impf ( bégatʹ ), побе́гать (ru) pf ( pobégatʹ ) ( abstract ), бежа́ть (ru) impf ( bežátʹ ), побежа́ть (ru) pf ( pobežátʹ ) ( concrete ) Venetian: corer , (vec) , córar , córer córare
to move or spread quickly
to be in charge of
Mandarin: 經營 ／ 经营 (zh) ( jīngyíng ), 管理 (zh) ( guǎnlǐ ) Czech:
řídit (cs) Finnish:
vetää , (fi) vastata (fi) ( + elative ), hallita , (fi) johtaa , (fi) pyörittää (fi) ( colloquial ) German:
leiten , (de) schmeißen (de) ( slang ) Hebrew:
נִהֵל (he) ( niheil ) Icelandic:
reka , (is) , leiða stýra (is) Indonesian:
menjalankan (id) Italian:
condurre (it) Korean:
맡다 (ko) ( matda ) Old English:
اداره کردن (fa) ( edâre kardan ) Portuguese:
dirigir (pt) Romanian:
conduce (ro) Russian:
управля́ть (ru) impf ( upravljátʹ ), руководи́ть (ru) impf ( rukovodítʹ ) Swedish: driva , (sv) leda , (sv) styra (sv)
тека́ (bg) impf ( teká ) Catalan:
fluir , (ca) escolar-se (ca) Chinese:
Mandarin: 流 (zh) ( liú ) Czech:
téct , (cs) téci (cs) Danish:
løbe , (da) ( about tears, poetic ) , trille rulle Finnish:
virrata , (fi) juosta (fi) French:
s’écouler , (fr) couler (fr) Galician:
correr , (gl) fluír (gl) German:
fließen , (de) rinnen (de) Greek:
τρέχω (el) ( trécho ), ρέω (el) ( réo ), κυλώ (el) ( kyló ) Indonesian:
mengalir (id) Irish:
fluire (it) Kazakh:
Arabic: اعۋ Korean:
흐르다 (ko) ( heureuda ) Macedonian:
тече ( teče ) Malay:
mengalir (ms) Manx:
sheel Old English:
cieknąć , (pl) biec (pl) impf Portuguese:
correr , (pt) manar , (pt) fluir (pt) Russian:
течь (ru) impf ( tečʹ ), Scots:
rin Scottish Gaelic:
proticati , (sh) strujati Sorbian:
Lower Sorbian: běžaś impf Spanish:
fluir , (es) afluir , (es) correr (es) Swedish:
rinna (sv) Tuvan:
агар ( agar ) Vietnamese: chảy (vi)
to have a liquid flowing from
to extend in space or through a range
to sail a boat with the wind coming from behind
to extend in time, to last, to continue
to make something extend in space
of a machine, to be operating normally
funcionar (ca) Chinese:
Mandarin: 工作 (zh) ( gōngzuò ), 運行 ／ 运行 (zh) ( yùnxíng ), 運轉 ／ 运转 (zh) ( yùnzhuǎn ) Czech:
fungovat (cs) impf Finnish:
toimia , (fi) käydä , (fi) kulkea (fi) ( of means of transport ), pyöriä (fi) French:
marcher (fr) German:
laufen (de) Italian:
funzionare (it) Japanese:
作動する (ja) ( さどうする, sadō suru ), 機能する (ja) ( きのうする, kinō suru ), 作用する (ja) ( さようする, sayō suru ), 動く (ja) ( うごく, ugoku ) Korean:
작동하다 (ko) ( jakdonghada ), 작용하다 (ko) ( jagyonghada ) Macedonian:
работи impf ( raboti ) Norwegian:
Bokmål: gå (no) Portuguese:
rodar , (pt) funcionar , (pt) operar (pt) Russian:
рабо́тать (ru) impf ( rabótatʹ ), функциони́ровать (ru) impf ( funkcionírovatʹ ) ( formal ), идти́ (ru) impf ( idtí ) ( clock, watch ) Tuvaluan: tele
to make a machine operate
to execute or carry out a plan, procedure or program
to be a candidate in an election
to make run in an election
to leak, spread or bleed in an undesirable fashion
to become different, usually worse
to pass without stopping or yielding
to transport someone or something
to smuggle illegal goods
— see smuggle
to cost a certain amount of money
of fish, to migrate for spawning
to flee away from a danger or towards help
agriculture: to sort through
to control or have precedence in a card game
juggling: to juggle a pattern continuously
diagram of stairs, showing the run ( sense 18.2)
Stockings with a run ( sense 21) in them
run ( plural ) runs
Act or instance of running, of moving rapidly using the feet.
I just got back from my morning run. 2012 June 9, Owen Phillips, “Euro 2012: Netherlands 0-1 Denmark”, in BBC Sport : Krohn-Dehli took advantage of a lucky bounce of the ball after a battling run on the left flank by Simon Poulsen, dummied two defenders and shot low through goalkeeper Maarten Stekelenburg's legs after 24 minutes. Act or instance of
hurrying (to or from a place) ( not necessarily on foot ); dash or errand, trip.
1759, N. Tindal, The Continuation of Mr Rapin's History of England, volume 21 (continuation volume 9), page 92:
and on the 18th of January this squadron put to sea. The first place of rendezvous was the boy of port St. Julian, upon the coast of Patagonia, and all accidents were provided against with admirable foresight. Their run to port St. Julian was dangerous I need to make a run to the store. A pleasure trip.
Let's go for a run in the car.
Flight, instance or period of fleeing.
, Tsirk Susej, 2006 The Demonic Bible, , page →ISBN 41: During his run from the police, he claimed to have a metaphysical experience which can only be described as “having passed through an abyss.”
Migration ( of fish ). A group of fish that migrate, or ascend a river for the purpose of spawning.
A literal or figurative path or course for movement relating to:
trip or route.
The bus on the Cherry Street run is always crowded. 1977, Star Wars (film)
You've never heard of the Millennium Falcon? It's the ship that made the Kessel Run in less than twelve parsecs. The
route taken while running or skiing.
Which run did you do today?
A single trip down a hill, as in ( skiing , bobsledding ) skiing and bobsledding. The distance sailed by a ship.
a good run; a run of fifty miles A
a run to China A
The data got lost, so I'll have to perform another run of the experiment.
The ( mathematics , computing ) execution of a program or model
This morning's run of the SHIPS statistical model gave Hurricane Priscilla a 74% chance of gaining at least 30 knots of intensity in 24 hours, reconfirmed by the HMON and GFS dynamical models. A ( video games ) playthrough, or attempted playthrough; a session of play.
This was my first successful run without losing any health. Unrestricted use.
Only used in .
have the run of He can have the run of the house. An
enclosure for an animal; a track or path along which something can travel.
He set up a rabbit run.
A ( Australia , New Zealand ) rural landholding for farming, usually for running sheep, and operated by a runholder. State of being current; currency; popularity.
1715 June 5 (Gregorian calendar), Joseph Addison, “The Free-holder: No. 45. Wednesday, May 25. [1715.]”, in The Works of the Right Honourable Joseph Addison, Esq;, volume IV, London: Jacob Tonson, , published 1721, : →OCLC It is impossible for detached papers[...] to have a general run, or long continuance, if they are not diversified[...]. Continuous or sequential
A continuous period (of time) marked by a trend; a period marked by a continuing trend.
I’m having a run of bad luck.
He went to Las Vegas and spent all his money over a three-day run.
2011 June 28, Piers Newbery, “Wimbledon 2011: Sabine Lisicki beats Marion Bartoli”, in BBC Sport : German wildcard Sabine Lisicki conquered her nerves to defeat France's Marion Bartoli and take her amazing Wimbledon run into the semi-finals. A series of tries in a game that were successful.
If our team can keep up their strong defense, expect them to make a run in this tournament. A production quantity (such as in a factory).
Yesterday we did a run of 12,000 units. The book’s initial press run will be 5,000 copies. The period of showing of a play, film, TV series, etc.
The run of the show lasted two weeks, and we sold out every night. It is the last week of our French cinema run. 1856 February, [Thomas Babington] Macaulay, “ Oliver Goldsmith [from the ]”, in Encyclopædia Britannica T F E[llis], editor, The Miscellaneous Writings and Speeches of Lord Macaulay, new edition, London: Longman, Green, Reader, & Dyer, published 1871, : →OCLC A canting, mawkish play [...] had an immense run.
A period of extended (usually ( slang ) daily) drug use.
, 1964 The Velvet Underground, Heroin: And I'll tell ya, things aren't quite the same / When I'm rushing on my run.
, Lloyd Y. Young, Mary Anne Koda-Kimble, Brian S. Katcher, 1975 Applied Therapeutics for Clinical Pharmacists: Frank Fixwell, a 25 year-old male, has been on a heroin " run" (daily use) for the past two years.
1977, Richard P. Rettig, Manual J. Torres, Gerald R. Garrett, Manny: a criminal-addict's story, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt (HMH) →ISBN
I was hooked on dope, and hooked bad, during this whole period, but I was also hooked behind robbery. When you're on a heroin run, you stay loaded so long as you can score.
, Robin J. Harman, 2001 Handbook of Pharmacy Health Education, Pharmaceutical Press, , page →ISBN 172: This can develop quite quickly (over a matter of hours) during a cocaine run or when cocaine use becomes a daily habit. , Robert DuPont, 2010 The Selfish Brain: Learning from Addiction, Hazelden Publishing, , page →ISBN 158: DA depletion leads to the crash that characteristically ends a cocaine run.
A sequence of ( card games ) cards in a suit in a card game. A ( music ) rapid passage in music, especially along a scale. A flow of
liquid; a leak.
The constant run of water from the faucet annoys me.
a run of must in wine-making the first run of sap in a maple orchard
A small ( chiefly eastern Midland US , especially Ohio , Pennsylvania , West Virginia ) creek or part thereof. ( Compare Southern US and New York and New England branch . brook )
The military campaign near that creek was known as "The battle of Bull Run". A
quick pace, faster than a walk.
He broke into a run. A fast ( of horses ) gallop.
A sudden series of demands on a ( banking ) bank or other financial institution, especially characterised by great withdrawals.
Financial insecurity led to a run on the banks, as customers feared for the security of their savings. Any sudden large
demand for something.
There was a run on Christmas presents. Various horizontal dimensions or surfaces
The top of a
step on a staircase, also called a tread, as opposed to the rise. The horizontal length of a set of stairs
( construction ) Horizontal dimension of a slope. A standard or unexceptional group or category.
He stood out from the usual run of applicants.
A ( baseball ) score when a runner touches all bases legally; the act of a runner scoring.
The act of passing from one ( cricket ) wicket to another; the point scored for this.
A running play.
( American football )
one of the greatest runs of all time. , Jack Seibold, 2003 Spartan Sports Encyclopedia, page 592: Aaron Roberts added an insurance touchdown on a one-yard run.
The movement communicated to a golf ball by running it. ( golf )
The distance a ball travels after touching the ground from a stroke. ( golf ) The distance drilled with a bit, in oil drilling.
, 1832 Records and Briefs of the United States Supreme Court, page 21: Well, when you compare the cone type with the cross roller bit, you get a longer run, there is less tendency of the bit to go flat while running in various formations. It cleans itself better. A line of
knit stitches that have unravelled, particularly in a nylon stocking.
I have a run in my stocking. , 1975 Joni Mitchell (lyrics and music), “The Boho Dance”, in The Hissing of Summer Lawns: A camera pans the cocktail hour / Behind a blind of potted palms / And finds a lady in a Paris dress / With runs in her nylons
The ( nautical ) stern of the underwater body of a ship from where it begins to curve upward and inward.
The horizontal distance to which a ( mining ) drift may be carried, either by licence of the proprietor of a mine or by the nature of the formation; also, the direction which a vein of ore or other substance takes. A pair or set of
millstones. Shortening of ( speedrunning ) speedrun.
( horizontal part of a step ) : , rise riser ( horizontal distance of a set of stairs ) : rise
act or instance of hurrying to or from a place
instance or period of fleeing
group of fish that migrate
route taken while running
distance sailed by a ship
computing: execution of a program or model
video games: playthrough, session of play
rural landholding for keeping sheep
continuous period of time marked by a trend
successful series of tries in a game
period of showing of a play, film, TV series, etc.
period of extended drug use
card games: sequence of cards in a suit
music: rapid passage along a scale
flow of liquid
тече́ние (bg) ( tečénie ), пото́к (bg) ( potók ) Finnish:
virtaus , (fi) juoksutus (fi) French:
flot (fr) , m flux (fr) m German:
Ausfluss (de) m Italian:
scorrere (it) , m flusso (it) , m sgocciolamento , m sgocciolio m Japanese:
流れ (ja) ( nagare ) Latgalian:
tekme , f straume Latvian:
, tecējums straume f Lithuanian:
srovė , f tėkmė f Macedonian:
тек m ( tek ) Maori:
bieg (pl) m Portuguese:
escorrimento m Romanian:
flux (ro) Russian:
пото́к (ru) m ( potók ), ток (ru) m ( tok ), тече́ние (ru) n ( tečénije ) Swedish: flöde (sv) , n ström (sv) , c rinnande (sv) n
sudden series of demands on a financial institution
sudden large demand for something
top of a step on a staircase
horizontal length of a set of stairs
construction: horizontal dimension of a slope
standard or unexceptional group or category
point scored in baseball, cricket or similar games
golf: movement communicated to a golf ball by running it
golf: distance a ball travels after touching the ground from a stroke
distance drilled with a bit
line of unravelled stitches
stern of the underwater body of a ship
mining: horizontal distance to which a drift may be carried
Translations to be checked
про́бег (bg) m ( próbeg ) Ewe:
, (please verify) duƒuƒu n (1) (please verify) dusisi n French:
période (fr) f German:
Etappe (de) f ( distance ), Streckenabschnitt (de) m ( distance ), Phase (de) f ( time ) Italian:
periodo (it) , m distacco (it) , m giro (it) m Italian:
(1), (please verify) corsa (it) f , (please verify) smagliatura (it) f (14) (please verify) giro (it) m Japanese:
( for distance ) 道程 (ja) ( dōtei ), 区間 (ja) ( kukan ), ( for time ) 時間 (ja) ( jikan ), 期間 (ja) ( kikan ) Lithuanian:
(please verify) bėgimas m Polish:
bieg (pl) m Telugu: (please verify) పరుగు (te) ( parugu )
run ( not ) comparable
liquid state; melted or molten.
Put some run butter on the vegetables. , L. W. Ferris, H. W. Redfield, W. R. North, “The Volatile Acids and the Volatile Oxidizable Substances of Cream and Experimental Butter”, in 1921 Journal of Dairy Science, volume 4, page 522: Samples of the regular run butter were sealed in 1 pound tins and sent to Washington, where the butter was scored and examined.
Cast in a mould.
, Thomas Frankz, 1735 A tour through France, Flanders, and Germany: in a letter to Robert Savil, page 18: [...] the Sides are generally made of Holland's Tiles, or Plates of run Iron, ornamented variously as Fancy dictates, [...]
1833, The Cabinet Cyclopaedia: A treatise on the progressive improvement and present state of the Manufactures in Metal, volume 2, Iron and Steel (printed in London), page 314:
Vast quantities are cast in sand moulds, with that kind of run steel which is so largely used in the production of common table-knives and forks. c. 1839, (Richard of Raindale, The Plan of my House vindicated, quoted by) T. T. B. in the Dwelling of Richard of Raindale, King of the Moors, published in The Mirror, number 966, 7 September 1839, page 153:
For making tea I have a kettle,
Besides a pan made of
run metal; An old arm-chair, in which I sit well —
The back is round.
Exhausted; depleted ( especially with "down" or "out" ).
( of a zoology ) Travelled, migrated; having made a migration or a spawning run.
, Henry Cholmondeley-Pennell, 1889 Fishing: Salmon and Trout, fifth edition, page 185: The temperature of the water is consequently much higher than in either England or Scotland, and many newly run salmon will be found in early spring in the upper waters of Irish rivers where obstructions exist.
, Arthur Oglesby, 1986 Fly fishing for salmon and sea trout, page 15: It may be very much a metallic appearance as opposed to the silver freshness of a recently run salmon. , Rod Sutterby, Malcolm Greenhalgh, 2005 Atlantic Salmon: An Illustrated Natural History, page 86: Thus, on almost any day of the year, a fresh- run salmon may be caught legally somewhere in the British Isles. Smuggled.
past participle of rin
first-person singular present indicative imperative
Romanization of 𐍂𐌿𐌽
. Nonstandard spelling of rún . Nonstandard spelling of rùn
Transcriptions of Mandarin into the Latin script often do not distinguish between the critical tonal differences employed in the Mandarin language, using words such as this one without indication of tone.
etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)
run ( m plural ) runs
( nautical ) beam ( of a ship )
Old Norse rún f ( “ rune, secret ” ), from Proto-Norse *ᚱᚢᚾᚢ ( *runu /rūnu/ ), from Proto-Germanic . Akin to *rūnō English roun ( “ secret; rune ” ).
run ( f definite singular , runa indefinite plural , runer definite plural ) runene
taka ― run på ein use witchcraft on someone , Torkell Mauland, 1911 Trolldom [ ], Witchcraft page : 147 Han hadde den hausten lege i trætta med Omund Horpestad um ein kvernastad, og daa hadde han truga med at han skulde taka run paa Omund. So sa i minsto Omund Horpestad daa han bad lensmannen, Mons Øksnavad, stemna Johans til Haugs-tinget ²⁷/₁₁ 1650. He had that autumn been in a quarrel with Omund Horpestad about a milling place, and had then threatened with using witchcraft on Omund. This is at least what Omund Horpestad told when he asked the sheriff, Mons Øksnavad, to subpoena Johans to the Haugating at 27th November 1650. :
( chiefly in the plural ) secret or magic aids
Synonym: rune f
Female given names:
Male given names:
“Runer” in Ivar Aasen (1873) Norsk Ordbog med dansk Forklaring
Proto-West Germanic . Cognate with the *rūnu Old Saxon , rūna Old High German ( rūna German ), Raun Old Norse , and rún Gothic 𐍂𐌿𐌽𐌰 ( runa ).
run (strong ō-stem)
IPA (: key) /run/ Rhymes:
-un Syllabification: run
genitive plural of runo
genitive plural of runa
run in Polish dictionaries at PWN
run ( m plural ) runes
( Honduras ) armadillo
run • ( ) 惇, 慵, 敦, 𢹈
to tremble, to shiver (due to cold)
to smell; to stink
crumble; to shatter
Ó ti ― rún wómúwómú It has completely crumbled to
Mo fẹ́ ― rún obì I want to chew a kola nut to crinkle; to be wrinkled
Ṣé ẹ̀wù mi ti ― rún? Are my clothes creased?
to tan ( leather )
destroy; to ruin to perish
to ( with inú ) ache
Inú ń ― rún un. Her stomach is aching.