so

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Translingual

Symbol

so

  1. (international standards) ISO 639-1 language code for Somali.

English

English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

Etymology 1

From Middle English so, swo, zuo, swa, swe, from Old English swā, swǣ, swē (so, as, the same, such, that), from Proto-West Germanic *swā, from Proto-Germanic *swa, *swē (so), from Proto-Indo-European *swē, *swō (reflexive pronomial stem). Cognate with Scots sae (so), West Frisian sa (so), Low German so (so), Dutch zo (so), German so (so), Danish (so), Norwegian Nynorsk so, Swedish ("so, such that"), Old Latin suad (so), Albanian sa (how much, so, as), Ancient Greek ὡς (hōs, as), Urdu سو (, hence).

Pronunciation

Conjunction

so

  1. Reduced form of 'so that', used to express purpose; in order that.
    I got an earlier train to work so I'd have plenty of time to prepare for the meeting.
    Eat your broccoli so you can have dessert.
  2. With the result that; for that reason; therefore.
    I was hungry, so I asked if there was any more food.
    He ate too much cake, so he fell ill.
    He wanted a book, so he went to the library.
    “I need to go to the bathroom.” ― “So go!”
    • 1913, Joseph C[rosby] Lincoln, chapter I, in Mr. Pratt’s Patients, New York, N.Y., London: D[aniel] Appleton and Company, →OCLC:
      Thinks I to myself, “Sol, you're run off your course again. This is a rich man's summer ‘cottage’ [].” So I started to back away again into the bushes. But I hadn't backed more'n a couple of yards when I see something so amazing that I couldn't help scooching down behind the bayberries and looking at it.
  3. (informal) Used as a sentence-starting filler or introductory word with no particular meaning.
    “Where were you born?”So I was born in London.”
  4. Used to connect previous conversation or events to the following question.
    So how does this story end?
  5. Used to introduce a rhetorical question.
    “We'd like to visit but I don't know if we can afford a hotel.” — “So who's staying in a hotel? Stay with us.”
  6. (archaic) Provided that; on condition that; as long as.
Usage notes

Chiefly in North American use, a comma or pause is often used before the conjunction when used in the sense with the result that. (A similar meaning can often be achieved by using a semicolon or colon (without the so), as for example: He drank the poison; he died.)

The apparently meaningless use of "so" to begin sentences, such as replies to questions, where there is no relevant sense of "in order that" or "for that reason", has become increasingly common over the early part of the 21st century, and has been widely described as irritating. .

Synonyms
Translations

Adverb

so (not comparable)

  1. To the (explicitly stated) extent that.
    It was so hot outside that all the plants died.
    He was so good, they hired him on the spot.
    • 1913, Joseph C[rosby] Lincoln, chapter I, in Mr. Pratt’s Patients, New York, N.Y., London: D[aniel] Appleton and Company, →OCLC:
      Thinks I to myself, “Sol, you're run off your course again. This is a rich man's summer ‘cottage’ [].” So I started to back away again into the bushes. But I hadn't backed more'n a couple of yards when I see something so amazing that I couldn't help scooching down behind the bayberries and looking at it.
    • 2013 July 20, “Old soldiers?”, in The Economist, volume 408, number 8845:
      Whether modern, industrial man is less or more warlike than his hunter-gatherer ancestors is impossible to determine. The machine gun is so much more lethal than the bow and arrow that comparisons are meaningless.
  2. To the (implied) extent.
    I need a piece of cloth so long. [= this long]
    There are only so many hours in a day.
  3. Very (positive or negative clause).
    I feel so much better now.
    I so nearly lost my temper.
    It’s not so bad. [i.e. it's acceptable]
    • 1910, Emerson Hough, chapter I, in The Purchase Price: Or The Cause of Compromise, Indianapolis, Ind.: The Bobbs-Merrill Company, →OCLC:
      Captain Edward Carlisle [] felt a curious sensation of helplessness seize upon him as he met her steady gaze, []; he could not tell what this prisoner might do. He cursed the fate which had assigned such a duty, cursed especially that fate which forced a gallant soldier to meet so superb a woman as this under handicap so hard.
  4. Very much.
    But I so want to see the Queen when she visits our town!
    • 1879, R[ichard] J[efferies], chapter 1, in The Amateur Poacher, London: Smith, Elder, & Co., , →OCLC:
      Molly the dairymaid came a little way from the rickyard, and said she would pluck the pigeon that very night after work. She was always ready to do anything for us boys; and we could never quite make out why they scolded her so for an idle hussy indoors. It seemed so unjust.
    • 1989, Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles #5, Archie Comics:
      I so wanted to be Jess Harley again.
    • 2003 April 16, Michael Stokes, “I, Dude”, in Totally Spies!, season 2, episode 9, spoken by Clover (Andrea Taylor), Marathon Media, via Teletoon:
      Yeah! Not eating is so 90’s!
    1. (informal) at all (negative clause).
      That is so not true!
  5. In a particular manner.
    Place the napkin on the table just so. If that's what you mean, then say so; (or do so).
  6. In the same manner or to the same extent as aforementioned; likewise, also.
    Just as you have the right to your free speech, so I have the right to mine.  Many people say she's the world's greatest athlete, but I don't think so."I can count backwards from one hundred." "So can I."
    ‘There're another two.’ ‘So there are.’
    He wants to eat now. So does she.
    • 1883, Howard Pyle, chapter V, in The Merry Adventures of Robin Hood , New York, N.Y.: Charles Scribner’s Sons , →OCLC:
      "Good morrow to thee, jolly fellow," quoth Robin, "thou seemest happy this merry morn." ¶ "Ay, that am I," quoth the jolly Butcher, "and why should I not be so? Am I not hale in wind and limb? Have I not the bonniest lass in all Nottinghamshire? And lastly, am I not to be married to her on Thursday next in sweet Locksley Town?"
    • 1920, Edward Carpenter, Pagan and Christian Creeds, New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co., published 1921, page 192:
      The work thus done has probably been of the greatest value to the human race; but, just as in other cases it has sometimes happened that the effort to do a certain work has resulted in the end in an unbalanced exaggeration so here.
    • 2012 May 19, Paul Fletcher, “Blackpool 1-2 West Ham”, in BBC Sport:
      It was a goal that meant West Ham won on their first appearance at Wembley in 31 years, in doing so becoming the first team since Leicester in 1996 to bounce straight back to the Premier League through the play-offs.
    • 2019, Amanda Koci, Henry Walter, Charlie Puth, Maria Smith, Victor Thellm, Gigi Grombacher, Roland Spreckle (lyrics and music), “So Am I”, performed by Ava Max:
      it's okay to be different
      'Cause baby, so am I
  7. (with as): To such an extent or degree; as.
    so far as;  so long as;  so much as
Usage notes
  • Use of so in the sense to the implied extent is discouraged in formal writing; spoken intonation which might render the usage clearer is not usually apparent to the reader, who might reasonably expect the extent to be made explicit. For example, the reader may expect He is so good to be followed by an explanation or consequence of how good he is. Devices such as use of underscoring and the exclamation mark may be used as a means of clarifying that the implicit usage is intended; capitalising SO is also used. The derivative subsenses very and very much are similarly more apparent with spoken exaggerated intonation.
  • The difference between so and very in implied-extent usage is that very is more descriptive or matter-of-fact, while so indicates more emotional involvement. For example, she is very clever is a simple statement of opinion; she is so clever suggests admiration. Likewise, that is very typical is a simple statement; that is SO typical of him! is an indictment. A formal (and reserved) apology may be expressed I am very sorry, but after elbowing someone in the nose during a basketball game, a man might say, Dude, I am so sorry! in order to ensure that it's understood as an accident.
Synonyms
Derived terms
Translations
References
  1. ^ Mark Liberman, "Ask Language Log: So feminine?", 2012 March 26

Adjective

so (comparative more so, superlative most so)

  1. As what was or will be mentioned.
    That is so.
    You are responsible for this, is that not so?
    • 1908, W B M Ferguson, chapter IV, in Zollenstein, New York, N.Y.: D. Appleton & Company, →OCLC:
      “My Continental prominence is improving,” I commented dryly. ¶ Von Lindowe cut at a furze bush with his silver-mounted rattan. ¶ “Quite so,” he said as dryly, his hand at his mustache. “I may say if your intentions were known your life would not be worth a curse.”
    • 2008, Leslie T. Chang, Factory Girls: From Village to City in a Changing China, New York: Spiegel & Grau, →ISBN, →LCCN, →OCLC, →OL, page 73:
      The details of her own life crowded out everything else; almost every time I saw Min, she had something new to tell me. It sometimes felt as if the laws of the physical world did not apply to her, that she had only to think of something — a job switch, a breakup — to make it so. If I didn’t see her for a while, she might forget to tell me that she had quit a factory or gotten a raise, because in her mind she had already moved on.
  2. In that state or manner; with that attribute. A proadjective that replaces the aforementioned adjective phrase.
    • 1823, Andrew Reed, Martha:
      If this separation was painful to all parties, it was most so to Martha.
    • 1872, Charles Dickens, “The Personal History of David Copperfield”, in (Please provide the book title or journal name):
      But if I had been more fit to be married, I might have made you more so too.
    • 1947, Liberty Hyde Bailey, The Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture:
      It must be understood that while the nelumbiums are hardy, they are so only as long as the tubers are out of the reach of frost.
  3. (dated, UK, slang) Homosexual.
    Is he so?
Synonyms
Derived terms
Translations

Interjection

so

  1. Used after a pause for thought to introduce a new topic, question or story, or a new thought or question in continuation of an existing topic.
    Synonyms: look, well, see, hey
    So, let's go home.
    So, what'll you have?
    So, there was this squirrel stuck in the chimney...
    So, everyone wants to know – did you win the contest or not?
    • 1913, Joseph C[rosby] Lincoln, chapter XI, in Mr. Pratt’s Patients, New York, N.Y., London: D[aniel] Appleton and Company, →OCLC:
      So, after a spell, he decided to make the best of it and shoved us into the front parlor. 'Twas a dismal sort of place, with hair wreaths, and wax fruit, and tin lambrekins, and land knows what all.
  2. Used as a question to ask for further explanation of something said, often rhetorically or in a dismissive or impolite manner.
    "You park your car in front of my house every morning." — "So?"
  3. Used as a meaningless filler word to begin a response to a question.
    What are you doing? / So I'm just fixing this shelf.
    What time does the train leave? / So it leaves at 10 o'clock.
  4. (archaic) Be as you are; stand still; used especially to cows; also used by sailors.
Usage notes

Though certain uses of "sentence-initial so" had been common for a long time, the perceived excessive use of the word at the start of sentences, such as at the start of answers to questions, became controversial in the 2010s, being described as "annoying".

Translations

Etymology 2

Pronoun

so

  1. Abbreviation of someone.
Synonyms
  • sb (somebody)

Etymology 3

Shortened from sol, to make it an open syllable for uniformity with the rest of the scale.

Noun

so (plural sos)

  1. (music) A syllable used in solfège to represent the fifth note of a major scale.
Translations

Etymology 4

Borrowed from Japanese (so).

Noun

so (uncountable)

  1. (foods) A type of dairy product, made especially in Japan between the seventh and 10th centuries, by reducing milk by boiling it.

See also

Further reading

References

See also

Anagrams

Afrikaans

Alternative forms

  • soe (Western Cape)

Etymology

From Dutch zo, from Middle Dutch , from Old Dutch , from Proto-West Germanic *swā, from a merger of Proto-Germanic *swa and *swē.

Pronunciation

Adverb

so

  1. so, like that/this, thus (in such a way)
  2. so, that, to such an extent

Derived terms

Aiwoo

Verb

so

  1. To stand (to be in a standing position).

References

Asturian

Etymology 1

From Latin sub.

Preposition

so

  1. under
Derived terms

Etymology 2

From Latin suus (his, her, its).

Adjective

so m sg (feminine singular so, neuter singular so, masculine plural sos, feminine plural sos)

  1. his, her, its
  2. your (polite)
  3. their

Pronoun

so

  1. his, hers
  2. yours (polite)

Related terms

Etymology 3

Alternative forms

Verb

so

  1. first-person singular present indicative of ser

Bambara

Etymology 1

Noun

so (tone )

  1. horse
Derived terms

Etymology 2

Noun

so

  1. house, home
Derived terms

Basque

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /s̺o/
  • Rhymes: -o
  • Hyphenation: so

Etymology 1

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Adverb

so (not comparable)

  1. (chiefly Northern) looking at

Noun

so inan

  1. (chiefly Northern) look, gaze
Declension
Derived terms

Etymology 2

Interjection

so

  1. whoa
    Synonyms: iso, esti

Further reading

  • "so" in Euskaltzaindiaren Hiztegia , euskaltzaindia.eus
  • so” in Orotariko Euskal Hiztegia , euskaltzaindia.eus

Brokskat

Pronoun

so

  1. he

Catalan

Etymology 1

Inherited from Old Catalan so~son, from Latin sonus. Compare Occitan son, French son, Spanish sueno.

Pronunciation

Noun

so m (plural sons)

  1. sound
Related terms

Etymology 2

Back-formation from sons (plural). Compare Spanish sueño, Portuguese sono, from Latin somnus.

Alternative forms

Pronunciation

Noun

so m (plural sons)

  1. (Tarragon, Mallorca, Menorca) sleep
Related terms

Etymology 3

Alternative forms

Pronunciation

Verb

so (archaic, Central, Northwest Catalan, Alghero)

  1. first-person singular present indicative of ésser
  2. first-person singular present indicative of ser
Usage notes
  • This form is still used in certain dialects, such as Algherese.

Etymology 4

Alternative forms

  • s' (after amb or sometimes en, before a vowel)
  • es (not after amb or sometimes en)

Pronunciation

Article

so

  1. (Mallorca, Ibiza) Alternative form of es (the, masculine singular) (used after amb (with) and sometimes en (in), before a consonant)
    Va anar-hi amb so cotxe.He went there with the car.

References

Chinese

Etymology 1

From clipping of English jetso, from Cantonese 著數着数 (zoek6 sou3).

Pronunciation

Noun

so

  1. (Hong Kong Cantonese) benefit; advantage; bargain; discount

Adjective

so

  1. (Hong Kong Cantonese) bargain; advantageous

Quotations

Etymology 2

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium. Particularly: “from socialise?”)

Alternative forms

Pronunciation

Verb

so

  1. (Hong Kong Cantonese) to respond; to pay attention to

Etymology 3

Pronunciation

Noun

so

  1. (Hong Kong Cantonese, in compounds) Alternative form of soc (society)

References

  1. ^ 林建平 (2015 February 10) “大家有SO!”, in 星島教育網

Corsican

Etymology

From Vulgar Latin sum, from Latin suum, from Proto-Italic *sowos, from Proto-Indo-European *sewos. Cognates include Italian suo and French son.

Pronunciation

Determiner

so

  1. his, her, their

Usage notes

  • so is preceded by a definite article (u, a, i, e or l'):
    U so libru.His book.
  • Unlike its French or Italian cognates, so does not decline, either by gender or number:
    U so libru, i so libri.His book, his books.

References

  • so” in INFCOR: Banca di dati di a lingua corsa

Czech

Pronunciation

Noun

so

  1. Abbreviation of sobota (Saturday).

Danish

Etymology

From Old Norse sýr, from Proto-Germanic *sūz, from Proto-Indo-European *sū-.

Noun

so c (singular definite soen, plural indefinite søer)

  1. sow (female pig)
  2. (derogatory) slut

Declension

References

Elfdalian

Etymology

From Old Norse svá, from Proto-Germanic *swa, *swē. Cognate with Swedish .

Adverb

so

  1. so, like that, in that manner
  2. so, to such a degree

Esperanto

Pronunciation

Noun

so (accusative singular so-on, plural so-oj, accusative plural so-ojn)

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter S/s.

See also

Faroese

Etymology

From Old Norse svá, from Proto-Germanic *swa, *swē (so), from Proto-Indo-European *swē, *swō (reflexive pronomial stem).

Pronunciation

Adverb

so (not comparable)

  1. so, thus, as
  2. then

Finnish

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ˈso(ː)/,
  • Rhymes: -o
  • Syllabification(key): so

Interjection

so

  1. Alternative form of soo

Further reading

  • so”, in Kielitoimiston sanakirja [Dictionary of Contemporary Finnish]‎ (in Finnish) (online dictionary, continuously updated), Kotimaisten kielten keskuksen verkkojulkaisuja 35, Helsinki: Kotimaisten kielten tutkimuskeskus (Institute for the Languages of Finland), 2004–, retrieved 2023-07-03

Folopa

Alternative forms

Noun

so

  1. woman

References

  • Karl James Franklin, Pacific Linguistics (1973, →ISBN, page 130: Polopa so/sou woman, cf. DAR sou female animal but we woman.
  • Karl J. Franklin, Comparative Wordlist 1 of the Gulf District and adjacent areas (1975), page 15: Boro, Suri, Tebera sou, Sopese šo
  • Carol Anderson, Beginning Folopa Language Lessons and Simple Glossary (2010) (as so)

Friulian

Etymology

From Latin suus.

Pronoun

so (third-person singular possessive of masculine singular, of feminine singular , of masculine plural siei, of feminine plural sôs)

  1. (used attributively) his, her, its; of his, hers, its
  2. (used predicatively) his, hers, its
  3. (used substantively) his, hers, its; the thing belonging to him, her,it

See also

Galician

Alternative forms

Etymology

From Old Galician-Portuguese so, su, sob, from Latin sub.

Pronunciation

Preposition

so

  1. under, beneath

References

  • so” in Dicionario de Dicionarios do galego medieval, SLI - ILGA 2006–2022.
  • so” in Dicionario de Dicionarios da lingua galega, SLI - ILGA 2006–2013.

German

Etymology

From Middle High German , from Old High German , from Proto-West Germanic *swā, from Proto-Germanic *swa, *swē, compare with Old Dutch so and Dutch zo.

Pronunciation

Adverb

so

  1. so, such, that
    Die Leute sind so nett.People are so nice.
    Dieser Hammer ist nicht so gut.This hammer is not that good.
    Das ist so eine gute Idee!That is such a good idea!
    so und sosuch and such
  2. as (followed by an adjective or adverb plus wie in a statement of equality)
    Er rennt so schnell wie der Blitz.He runs as fast as lightning.
  3. thus, like this/that, in this/that way, in this/that manner
    Wenn du den Ball so wirfst, triffst du die Zielscheibe.
    If you throw the ball like this, you'll hit the target.
  4. then (in that case)
    Wirst du wieder gesund, so freue ich mich.If you get healthy again, then I'll be happy.
  5. (colloquial) expletive; sometimes intensifying, sometimes with no noticeable meaning
    Wir sind runtergegangen und haben uns hier so hingesetzt.
    We went downstairs and, like, sat down here.

Derived terms

Conjunction

so

  1. (coordinating) thus, so, pursuant to the aforementioned premises
    • 2018, Gerhard Czermak, Eric Hilgendorf, Religions- und Weltanschauungsrecht. Eine Einführung, 2nd edition, Springer, →DOI, →ISBN, § 7 Individuelle Religions- und Weltanschauungsfreiheit Rn. 130, page 68:
      Im Einzelnen ist die Abgrenzung zwischen Bekenntnisfreiheit und Religionsausübungsfreiheit unsicher. So kann etwa die religiöse Kleidung auch der Religionsausübungsfreiheit zugeordnet werden.
      In detail the difference between freedom of confessing and freedom of practicing religion is insecure. Thus for instance, religious clothing can be assigned to the freedom of practicing religion as well.
  2. (subordinating, chiefly archaic, sometimes law and regional) an, if
    Synonyms: falls, im Falle dass, wenn
    So es Euch beliebt.If it pleases you.

Particle

so

  1. (colloquial) quotative particle, somewhat similar to be like but also combinable with other verbs
    Ich so: "Mach mal dalli!", und er dann so: "Ich bin ja schon dabei!"
    I was like, "Hurry up!" and he was like, "I'm already on it!"
    Ich dachte mir nur so: "Ja komm, lass stecken."
    All I thought to myself was, "Yeah whatever, forget about it."
    • 1998, “Ich so, Er so”, Dendemann (lyrics), performed by Eins Zwo:
      Und er so wie aus heiterem Himmel so: Momentchen, da läuft doch Hip-Hop!
      Und ich so: Ja, das ist richtig!
      Und er so: Biste auch Rapper?
      Und ich so: Ja, so Hobby
      Und der Typ so original so: Oh welch ein Zufall, das bin ich nämlich auch!
      (please add an English translation of this quotation)
    • 2022 May 16, Lou Zucker, “Erwartungen beim Dating: Mehr als das Minimum”, in Die Tageszeitung: taz, →ISSN:
      Besonders überzeugt hatte mich dieser Moment meines Dates: „Ich habe gesagt: Ich weiß nicht, ob ich mich gerade bereit für Sex fühle. Da lag ich schon halb nackt in seinem Bett. Und er so: Cool, dann können wir ja einfach knutschen und kuscheln!“
      (please add an English translation of this quotation)

Usage notes

  • This quotation particle can be combined with a number of verbs but, somewhat unusually, it doesn't require the clause to contain any predicate at all. In such cases, the meaning is roughly that of to say in the past tense.

Pronoun

so

  1. (obsolete, relative) that, which, who
    Derhalben sind die Christen schuldig, der Obrigkeit unterthan [] zu seyn in Allem, so ohne Sünde geschehen mag.
    That do the Christians owe: to be obedient to the authority in all that may be done without sin.
    (Augsburger Bekenntnis)

Synonyms

Interjection

so

  1. (colloquial) a discourse marker in the beginning of a sentence indicating a topic having been dealt with and another being tackled
    Synonyms: tamam, okay, in Ordnung, fein, gut
    • 1887, Eduard Engel, Griechische Frühlingstage, 4th, purer edition, Radebeul bei Dresden: Haupt & Hammon, published 1927, page 361:
      So, das sind die Entscheidungen der größten Gelehrten über die doch nicht ganz unwichtige Frage, wie eine der Sprachen auszusprechen sei, in der jahraus jahrein in Deutschland gutgezählte 50 000 junge Menschenkinder unterrichtet werden.
      Trotz jenen Entscheidungen ist natürlich noch lange nicht daran zu denken, daß dem Unfug einer als gänzlich falsch erkannten Aussprache des Griechischen ein Ende gesetzt wäre. Der Schlendrian wird auf diesem Gebiete des Schulwesens wohl ebenso lange dauern, wie auf vielen andern; denn bequem ist allerdings jener Schlendrian, nur wissenschaftlich ist er nicht, und unbrauchbar für das Leben ist er obendrein. Die Beseitigung des Schlendrians werde ich wohl nicht mehr erleben, auch dann nicht, wenn Plato selber aus der Asche auferstünde und die deutschen Schulmänner die richtige Aussprache lehrte. Sie würden ihm beweisen, daß er sich irre: er habe in den mehr als zwei Jahrtausenden seit seinem Tode gewiß die richtige Aussprache vergessen; sie aber, die deutschen Oberlehrer und Direktoren, kennten sie ganz genau: sie wäre buchstäblich so wie das Neuhochdeutsche des 20. Jahrhunderts gewesen.
      So these are the reckonings of the greatest scholars about the not quite insignificant question how one of the languages which is taught to about 50 000 young lads per annum should be pronounced.
      In spite of these reckonings by far it is not to think that this buffoonery of an utterly wrong pronunciation of Greek would come to an end. The litherness in this field of schooling will last as long as in many others; for convenient it is forsooth, but scientific it is not, and devoid of use for life ’tis on top. The elimination of this litherness I will not be an observer of in my lifetime, even if Plato himself were to rise from his ashes and teach the pedants the right pronunciation. They would shew him his being at fault: he surely has forgot the right pronunciation; but them, the senior and head teachers know it very well; it would be literally like the New High German of the 20th century.

Further reading

Gothic

Romanization

  1. Romanization of 𐍃𐍉

Indonesian

Adverb

so

  1. Alternative form of sok

Irish

Pronunciation

Determiner

so

  1. Munster form of seo (used after a word ending in a velarized ("broad") consonant)
    • 1939, Peig Sayers, “Inghean an Cheannaidhe”, in Marie-Louise Sjoestedt, Description d’un parler irlandais de Kerry (Bibliothèque de l'École des Hautes Études; 270) (overall work in French), Paris: Librairie Honoré Champion, page 193:
      Ní raibh aoinne cloinne age n-a muinntir ach í agus do mhéaduigh sin uirrim agus grádh na ndaoine don inghean óg so.
      Her parents had no children but her, and that increased the esteem and love of the people for this young girl.

Further reading

  • Ó Dónaill, Niall (1977) “so”, in Foclóir Gaeilge–Béarla, Dublin: An Gúm, →ISBN
  • Kuninao Nashimoto (2020 March) ニューエクスプレスプラス アイルランド語 (Nyū Ekusupuresu Purasu Airurando-go-->) [New Express Plus Irish] (in Japanese), Tokyo: Hakusuisha, →ISBN, pages 17-19

Italian

Alternative forms

  • (misspelling)

Pronunciation

Verb

so

  1. first-person singular present indicative of sapere (I know)
    Non lo so.I don't know (it).
    Lo so io!(But) I do (know it)!

References

Jamaican Creole

Etymology

Derived from English so.

Pronunciation

Conjunction

so

  1. so
    Wa mek unu kip dis-ya ruum so chaka-chaka?
    Why do you keep this room so untidy?

Particle

so

  1. emphasis particle
    yaso
    right here
    deso
    right there

Japanese

Romanization

so

  1. The hiragana syllable (so) or the katakana syllable (so) in Hepburn romanization.

Ladino

Verb

so (Latin spelling)

  1. first-person singular present indicative of ser

Louisiana Creole

Etymology

Borrowed from English so.

Pronunciation

Interjection

so

  1. so (discourse particle) (clarification of this definition is needed)

Luxembourgish

Verb

so

  1. second-person singular imperative of soen

Mauritian Creole

Pronunciation

Etymology 1

From French son.

Pronoun

so

  1. (possessive) his, her, its, one's

Etymology 2

From French chaud.

Adjective

so

  1. hot, warm.
Antonyms

Middle Dutch

Etymology 1

From Old Dutch , from Proto-West Germanic *swā, from Proto-Germanic *swa.

Pronunciation

Adverb

  1. so, like that, in that manner
  2. so, to such a degree
  3. (so ... alse) as
  4. then, in that case
  5. so, therefore

Conjunction

  1. if, in the case that
  2. like, as
  3. (so ... so) both ... and

Descendants

  • Dutch: zo
  • Limburgish: zoe, zoea

Etymology 2

Weakened form of soe.

Pronunciation

Pronoun

  1. (chiefly Flemish) Alternative form of si (she)

Further reading

  • so (I)”, in Vroegmiddelnederlands Woordenboek, 2000
  • so (II)”, in Vroegmiddelnederlands Woordenboek, 2000
  • Verwijs, E., Verdam, J. (1885–1929) “so”, in Middelnederlandsch Woordenboek, The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, →ISBN

Middle English

Etymology 1

From Old English swā, from Proto-West Germanic *swā.

Alternative forms

Pronunciation

Adverb

so

  1. so
Descendants
References

Etymology 2

Pronoun

so

  1. (chiefly Northern dialectal) Alternative form of sche

Northern Sami

Etymology

Borrowed from Norwegian .

Pronunciation

This entry needs pronunciation information. If you are familiar with the IPA then please add some!

Adverb

so

  1. so, then, in that case
  2. so, to this or that extent

Further reading

  • Koponen, Eino, Ruppel, Klaas, Aapala, Kirsti, editors (2002–2008), Álgu database: Etymological database of the Saami languages, Helsinki: Research Institute for the Languages of Finland

Norwegian Nynorsk

Alternative forms

Etymology

From Middle Norwegian so, svo, from Old Norse svá, from Proto-Indo-European *swa. Akin to English so.

Pronunciation

Adverb

so

  1. so
    Dei seier so.
    So they say.
  2. that
    Eg visste ikkje at dei skulle vera so mange.
    I didn't know that they were going to be that many.
  3. as
    So vidt eg veit.
    As far as I know.
  4. then
    Eg gjekk på kino. So gjekk eg heim.
    I went to the movies. Then I went home.

Conjunction

so

  1. so
    Eg barberte meg, so ho skulle synast eg var fin.
    I shaved so that she would think I looked nice.

References

Occitan

Etymology

From Old Occitan so, from Latin ipsum.

Article

so (feminine sa, masculine plural sos, feminine plural sas)

  1. Alternative form of lo (rare)

Usage notes

  • In the Provençal dialect, the masculine and feminine plural is sei.

Old Dutch

Etymology

From Proto-West Germanic *swā, from Proto-Germanic *swa.

Adverb

  1. so, like that, in that manner

Descendants

Further reading

  • sō (I)”, in Oudnederlands Woordenboek, 2012

Old Irish

Alternative forms

Etymology

From Proto-Celtic *so (this), from Proto-Indo-European *só.

Pronunciation

Determiner

so

  1. this (used after the noun, which is preceded by the definite article)
    ind epistil sothis epistle

Derived terms

Descendants

Old Saxon

Etymology

From Proto-West Germanic *swā, from Proto-Germanic *swa.

Adverb

  1. so, like that, in that manner

Pali

Alternative forms

Pronoun

so

  1. he, it

Adjective

so

  1. masculine nominative singular of ta (that)

Phalura

Etymology 1

From Sanskrit स ; सो (sa ; so, nom.sg.masc pron. and pronom. adj. he, that).

Pronunciation

Determiner

so (demonstrative, Perso-Arabic spelling سوۡ)

  1. the
  2. that (agr: rem nom masc)

References

  • Liljegren, Henrik, Haider, Naseem (2011) Palula Vocabulary (FLI Language and Culture Series; 7)‎, Islamabad, Pakistan: Forum for Language Initiatives, →ISBN
  • Turner, Ralph Lilley (1969–1985) “so”, in A Comparative Dictionary of the Indo-Aryan Languages, London: Oxford University Press

Etymology 2

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation

Pronoun

so (demonstrative, Perso-Arabic spelling سوۡ)

  1. it
  2. he (rem masc nom)

References

  • Liljegren, Henrik, Haider, Naseem (2011) Palula Vocabulary (FLI Language and Culture Series; 7)‎, Islamabad, Pakistan: Forum for Language Initiatives, →ISBN

Rawa

Noun

so

  1. grass

References

Romagnol

Verb

so (Faenza)

  1. first-person singular present indicative of ësar (to be)

Romani

Pronoun

so

  1. what?
    So kerel lesqo papu?
    What is his grandpa doing?

References

  1. ^ Boretzky, Norbert, Igla, Birgit (1994) “so”, in Wörterbuch Romani-Deutsch-Englisch für den südosteuropäischen Raum : mit einer Grammatik der Dialektvarianten [Romani-German-English dictionary for the Southern European region] (in German), Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, →ISBN, page 262a
  2. ^ Marcel Courthiade (2009) “so? I”, in Melinda Rézműves, editor, Morri angluni rromane ćhibǎqi evroputni lavustik = Első rromani nyelvű európai szótáram : cigány, magyar, angol, francia, spanyol, német, ukrán, román, horvát, szlovák, görög [My First European-Romani Dictionary: Romani, Hungarian, English, French, Spanish, German, Ukrainian, Romanian, Croatian, Slovak, Greek] (overall work in Hungarian and English), Budapest: Fővárosi Onkormányzat Cigány Ház--Romano Kher, →ISBN, page 327a

Rwanda-Rundi

Etymology

From Proto-Bantu *có.

Noun

 class 1a (plural bāsó class 2a)

  1. your father
  2. your paternal uncle

Sardinian

Verb

so

  1. first-person singular present indicative of èssere

Scottish Gaelic

Etymology 1

Reduced form of seo.

Pronunciation

Pronoun

so

  1. Obsolete form of -sa.
  2. Obsolete form of seo.

Etymology 2

Borrowed from English so

Pronunciation

Conjunction

so

  1. (colloquial, informal) so, therefore
Usage notes
  • Highly colloquial and English-influenced; forms such as mar sin are preferred in writing.

Serbo-Croatian

Alternative forms

Etymology

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *solь, from Proto-Indo-European *seh₂ls.

Pronunciation

Noun

 f (Cyrillic spelling со̑)

  1. (Bosnia, Serbia) salt

Declension

Slavomolisano

Etymology

From Serbo-Croatian so.

Pronunciation

Noun

so m

  1. salt

Declension

References

  • Walter Breu and Giovanni Piccoli (2000), Dizionario croato molisano di Acquaviva Collecroce: Dizionario plurilingue della lingua slava della minoranza di provenienza dalmata di Acquaviva Collecroce in Provincia di Campobasso (Parte grammaticale).

Slovak

Alternative forms

Etymology

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *sъ(n).

Pronunciation

Preposition

so (+ instrumental)

  1. with
    Antonyms: bez, bezo
    • 1903, Jozef Gregor Tajovský, Maco Mlieč :
      „Tak vy ste, Maco, celkom spokojný so službou a plácou?“
      “So, Maco, you are rather satisfied with the service and the wage, aren’t you?”

Usage notes

  • The sylabic variant so is used when the next word begins with s, z, š or ž or with a consonant cluster containing one of these consonants. It is also used in connection with mnou (me). In all other cases, the variant s is used.

Further reading

  • so”, in Slovníkový portál Jazykovedného ústavu Ľ. Štúra SAV [Dictionary portal of the Ľ. Štúr Institute of Linguistics, Slovak Academy of Science] (in Slovak), https://slovnik.juls.savba.sk, 2024

Slovene

Pronunciation

Verb

  1. third-person plural present of bíti

Spanish

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ˈso/
  • Rhymes: -o
  • Syllabification: so

Etymology 1

Inherited from Latin sub, from Proto-Italic *supo, from Proto-Indo-European *upo.

Preposition

so

  1. (archaic) under
Usage notes
  • So is very rare in modern Spanish, surviving only in certain expressions, including so pena de (on pain of, under penalty of), so pretexto de or so color de (under pretext of), a so capa (secretly, with bribery).

Etymology 2

Contraction of señor (Sir).

Pronoun

so

  1. (emphatic, derogatory) you
    ¡So tonto!You blithering idiot!
    ¡So borrachos!You bloody drunks!

Etymology 3

Borrowed from English so.

Interjection

so

  1. (US, Puerto Rico, El Salvador) so

Etymology 4

Interjection

so

  1. whoa!

Further reading

Swedish

Etymology

From Old Swedish (Old Icelandic/Norwegian sýr), from Old East Norse *sōʀ, from Proto-Germanic *sūz, from Proto-Indo-European *sū-. Compare the identical ko (Old Icelandic/Norwegian kýr, Old Swedish ).

Pronunciation

Noun

so c

  1. (rare) sow (female pig)

Usage notes

  • The more common synonym is sugga, especially for the plural form.

Declension

Declension of so 
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative so son sor sorna
Genitive sos sons sors sornas

Synonyms

Anagrams

Tok Pisin

Etymology 1

From English saw.

Noun

so

  1. saw

Etymology 2

From English show.

Noun

so

  1. show

Veps

Etymology

From Proto-Finnic *soo.

Noun

so

  1. swamp, marsh, bog

Inflection

Inflection of so (inflection type 13/ma)
nominative sing. so
genitive sing. son
partitive sing. sod
partitive plur. soid
singular plural
nominative so sod
accusative son sod
genitive son soiden
partitive sod soid
essive-instructive son soin
translative soks soikš
inessive sos soiš
elative sospäi soišpäi
illative soho soihe
adessive sol soil
ablative solpäi soilpäi
allative sole soile
abessive sota soita
comitative sonke soidenke
prolative sodme soidme
approximative I sonno soidenno
approximative II sonnoks soidennoks
egressive sonnopäi soidennopäi
terminative I sohosai soihesai
terminative II solesai soilesai
terminative III sossai
additive I sohopäi soihepäi
additive II solepäi soilepäi

Derived terms

References

  • Zajceva, N. G., Mullonen, M. I. (2007) “болото”, in Uz’ venä-vepsläine vajehnik / Novyj russko-vepsskij slovarʹ [New Russian–Veps Dictionary]‎, Petrozavodsk: Periodika

Vietnamese

Pronunciation

Etymology 1

This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.
Particularly: “This word had initial *k-r or *c-r in Old Vietnamese: it was written as 𨋤 (i.e. (MC kjo|tsyhae) + (MC lu)).”

Verb

so

  1. (transitive) To compare.
    Synonym: so sánh
    So với bạn thì nó cao hơn.Compared to his friend, he is taller.
  2. (transitive) To pair up.
    so đũato pair up chopsticks
  3. (intransitive) To straighten one's shoulders, as if to compare one's height to another's.
See also
Derived terms

Etymology 2

Compare  (, “first”).

Adjective

so

  1. firstborn
    con sofirstborn child
    chửa con soto be pregnant for the first time
    trứng gà soa chicken's first egg (usually a small egg)
Derived terms

Etymology 3

Noun

(classifier con) so

  1. Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda, mangrove horseshoe crab
See also
Derived terms

Volapük

Adverb

so

  1. so

Welsh

Pronunciation

Verb

so (not mutable)

  1. (South Wales) inflection of bod:
    1. second/third-person singular present negative colloquial
    2. first/second/third-person plural present negative colloquial
    So fe’n credu.
    He doesn’t think so.

Usage notes

Unlike other negative verb forms, this form—and sa, which is used for the first-person singular—is not complemented by ddim after the subject.

Xhosa

Pronoun

-so

  1. Combining stem of sona.

Zulu

Pronoun

-so

  1. Combining stem of sona.