jam

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See also: jamb, JAM, jám, -jam, Jam., and ям

English

Marmalade, a type of jam, spread on a piece of bread
A strawberry jam and peanut butter sandwich

Pronunciation

Etymology 1

First attested in the early 18th c. as a verb meaning “to press, be pressed, be wedged in”. Originally onomatopoeic, perhaps identical with Middle English chammen, champen (to bite, gnash one's teeth), whence modern champ, chomp.

Noun

jam (countable and uncountable, plural jams)

  1. A sweet mixture of fruit boiled with sugar and allowed to congeal. Often spread on bread or toast or used in jam tarts.
    Synonyms: (US) conserve, jelly, preserve
  2. (countable) A difficult situation.
    Synonyms: see Thesaurus:difficult situation
    • 1928, Upton Sinclair, Boston:
      It's a blackmail ring, and the district attorneys get a share of the loot. Well, they got him in the same kind of jam, and soaked him to the tune of three hundred and eighty-six thousand.
    • 1975, Bob Dylan (lyrics and music), “Tangled Up in Blue”:
      She was married when we first met / Soon to be divorced / I helped her out of a jam, I guess / But I used a little too much force
    • 1977, David Byrne (lyrics and music), “Uh-Oh, Love Comes to Town”, in Talking Heads: 77, performed by Talking Heads:
      Where, where is my common sense? / How did I get in a jam like this?
  3. (countable) A blockage, congestion, or immobilization.
    A traffic jam caused us to miss the game's first period.
    a jam of logs in a river
    • 2019 February 14, National Transportation Safety Board, “1.3.2.3 Elevator Design Standard for Ground Gust Loads”, in Aircraft Accident Report: Runway Overrun During Rejected Takeoff, Ameristar Air Cargo, Inc., dba Ameristar Charters, flight 9363, Boeing MD-83, N786TW, Ypsilanti, Michigan, March 8, 2017, archived from the original on 2 July 2022, retrieved 7 July 2022, page 12:
      According to Boeing, in the history of this elevator design (which exists on all Boeing DC-9/MD-80 series and 717 model airplanes), this accident was the first notification that Boeing had received of an elevator jam occurring on an airplane exposed to ground gusts lower than 65 kts. Boeing noted that the elevator design first entered service in 1965 on the then-Douglas DC-9 airplane.
  4. (countable, popular music) An informal, impromptu performance or rehearsal.
  5. (countable, by extension, informal) A song; a track.
    • 2001, Jet (volume 100, number 22, page 25)
      The result is an outstanding assortment of sophisticated, sexy and hip-hop-tinged R&B grooves, ballads and party jams.
  6. (countable, by extension) An informal event where people brainstorm and collaborate on projects.
    We came up with some new ideas at the game jam.
  7. (countable, slang) That which one particularly prefers, desires, enjoys, or cares about.
    Teaching is my jam.
  8. (countable, baseball) A difficult situation for a pitcher or defending team.
    The pitcher's in a jam now, having walked the bases loaded with the cleanup hitter coming to bat.
  9. (countable, basketball) A forceful dunk.
  10. (countable, roller derby) A play during which points can be scored.
    Toughie scored four points in that jam.
  11. (climbing, countable) Any of several maneuvers requiring wedging of an extremity into a tight space.
    I used a whole series of fist and foot jams in that crack.
  12. (Australia) The tree Acacia acuminata, with fruity-smelling hard timber.
    Synonyms: raspberry jam tree, stinking acacia
  13. (UK, slang) Luck.
    He's got more jam than Waitrose.
  14. (Canada, slang) balls, bollocks, courage, machismo
    I don't think he has the jam.
  15. (slang) Sexual relations or the contemplation of them.
Derived terms
Descendants
  • Czech: džem
  • Japanese: ジャム (jamu)
  • Korean: (jaem)
  • Polish: dżem
  • Russian: джем (džem)
  • Serbo-Croatian: džȅm, џе̏м
  • Slovak: džem
Translations
See also

Verb

jam (third-person singular simple present jams, present participle jamming, simple past and past participle jammed)

  1. To get something stuck, often (though not necessarily) in a confined space.
    My foot got jammed in a gap between the rocks.
    Her poor little baby toe got jammed in the door.
    I jammed the top knuckle of my ring finger.
  2. To brusquely force something into a space; to cram, to squeeze.
    They temporarily stopped the gas tank leak by jamming a piece of taffy into the hole.
    The rush-hour train was jammed with commuters.
    • 1779, George Colman, Farewell Epilogue, spoken at Wynnstay after the representation of Cymbeline and The Spanish Barber, 22 January, 1779, in Prose on Several Occasions: Accompanied with Some Pieces in Verse, London: T. Cadel, 1787, Volume 3, p. 283,
      Since the new post-horse tax, I dare engage
      That some folks here have travell’d in the Stage:
      Jamm’d in at midnight, in cold winter weather,
      The crouded passengers are glew’d together.
  3. To render something unable to move.
    • 2019 February 14, National Transportation Safety Board, “2.3.3 Elevator Load Testing”, in Aircraft Accident Report: Runway Overrun During Rejected Takeoff, Ameristar Air Cargo, Inc., dba Ameristar Charters, flight 9363, Boeing MD-83, N786TW, Ypsilanti, Michigan, March 8, 2017, archived from the original on 2 July 2022, retrieved 7 July 2022, page 56:
      Considering the results of the CFD wind simulation, the NTSB designed several series of static and dynamic elevator load tests to determine what conditions, consistent with the known circumstances of the accident, could enable the inboard actuating crank and links of the right elevator's geared tab to move beyond their normal range of travel and become locked in an overcenter position (and, as a result, jam the right elevator).
  4. To cause congestion or blockage. Often used with "up".
    A single accident can jam the roads for hours.
  5. To block or confuse a radio or radar signal by transmitting a more-powerful signal on the same frequency.
    The government jams foreign propaganda broadcasts.
    The airstrike suffered minimal casualties because electronic-warfare aircraft were jamming the enemy air-defense radars.
  6. (baseball) To throw a pitch at or near the batter's hands.
    Jones was jammed by the pitch.
  7. (basketball) To dunk.
  8. (music) To play music (especially improvisation as a group, or an informal unrehearsed session).
  9. To injure a finger or toe by sudden compression of the digit's tip.
    When he tripped on the step he jammed his toe.
  10. (roller derby) To attempt to score points.
    Toughie jammed four times in the second period.
  11. (nautical, transitive) To bring (a vessel) so close to the wind that half her upper sails are laid aback.
    • 1887, William Clark Russell, The Golden Hope
      It won't do to jam her,” answered Stone ;" but it might be worth findin' out if th' Hope won't lie closer than t' other can." Half a point ----"
  12. (Canada, informal) To give up on a date or some other joint endeavour; to stand up, chicken out, jam out.
Synonyms
Derived terms
Translations

Etymology 2

Persian or Hindi, meaning "garment, robe;" see جامه(garment). Related to pajamas.

Noun

jam (plural jams)

  1. (dated) A kind of frock for children.

Etymology 3

Noun

jam (plural jams)

  1. (mining) Alternative form of jamb

References

  • Wikipedia-logo-v2.svg jam on Wikipedia.Wikipedia
  • jam at OneLook Dictionary Search
  • jam in The Century Dictionary, New York, N.Y.: The Century Co., 1911

Anagrams


Albanian

Etymology

From Proto-Albanian *esmi, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁ésmi (I am, I exist), identical with Ancient Greek εἰμί (eimí), Sanskrit अस्मि (ásmi), English am. Aorist qeshë from Proto-Indo-European *kʷel- (to turn, revolve), with a semantic development similar to Germanic *werþaną (to become), from Proto-Indo-European *wert- (to turn).

Pronunciation

Verb

jam (first-person singular past tense qeshë, participle qenë)

  1. to be

Conjugation

References

  1. ^ Orel, Vladimir (1998), “jam”, in Albanian Etymological Dictionary, Leiden, Boston, Cologne: Brill, →ISBN, page 156

Baba Malay

Etymology

From Malay jam, from Sanskrit याम (yāma).

Noun

jam

  1. hour
  2. time

Further reading


Chinese

Etymology 1

From English jam.

Pronunciation


Verb

jam

  1. (Hong Kong Cantonese) to jam (to play music)
Derived terms

References

Etymology 2

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation


Verb

jam

  1. (Hong Kong Cantonese, university slang, uncommon) to steal; to take without asking
Synonyms

Related terms

  • (zim1, zem1, “jam”)

Czech

Etymology

From Portuguese inhame or Spanish iñame, both likely of West African origin.

Noun

jam m

  1. yam (any Dioscorea vine)

Dutch

Etymology

Borrowed from English jam.

Pronunciation

Noun

jam m (plural jams, diminutive jammetje n)

  1. (chiefly Netherlands) jam (congealed sweet mixture of conserved fruits)

Synonyms

Derived terms

Descendants

  • Caribbean Javanese: sèm

Esperanto

Etymology

Borrowed from Latin iam.

Pronunciation

Adverb

jam

  1. already, prior to some time
    Ŝi jam nutris la bestojn.She already fed the animals.

Garo

Etymology

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Noun

jam

  1. granary, storehouse

Highland Popoluca

Noun

jam

  1. lime

References

  • Elson, Benjamin F.; Gutiérrez G., Donaciano (1999) Diccionario popoluca de la Sierra, Veracruz (Serie de vocabularios y diccionarios indígenas “Mariano Silva y Aceves”; 41)‎ (in Spanish), Instituto Lingüístico de Verano, A.C., →ISBN, page 74

Indonesian

Etymology

From Malay jam, from Sanskrit याम (yāma, time).

Pronunciation

Noun

jam (first-person possessive jamku, second-person possessive jammu, third-person possessive jamnya)

  1. hour (Time period of sixty minutes)
  2. clock (instrument to measure or keep track of time)
  3. (colloquial) time, particular moment or hour; the appropriate moment or hour for something
    Synonyms: pukul, saat, waktu

Derived terms

Further reading


Interlingua

Adverb

jam (not comparable)

  1. already

Javanese

Etymology

Ultimately from Sanskrit याम (yāma)

Noun

jam

  1. hour
  2. clock

Latgalian

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ˈjam/
  • Hyphenation: jam

Pronoun

jam

  1. dative singular of jis
    Es jam atsaceju par reizi.I replied to him right away.
    Jam daguoja laistīs paceli nu sātys.He had to leave his home.
    Vys jam nazkas natai.He's never satisfied. (literally, “It's never good enough for him.”)

References

  • Nicole Nau (2011) A short grammar of Latgalian, München: LINCOM GmbH, →ISBN, page 37

Latin

Adverb

jam (not comparable)

  1. Alternative form of iam

References


Lindu

Noun

jam

  1. time
  2. hour
  3. clock

Lithuanian

Pronoun

jam m

  1. (third-person singular) dative form of jis.
    • 2007, Jurga (Jurga Šeduikytė), Angelai
      Jo balti sparnai man tinka
      Jam savo šarvus dovanoju
      His white wings suit me
      I present to him my armor

Malay

Etymology

From Sanskrit याम (yāma, time).

Pronunciation

Noun

jam (Jawi spelling جم‎, plural jam-jam, informal 1st possessive jamku, 2nd possessive jammu, 3rd possessive jamnya)

  1. hour (Time period of sixty minutes)
  2. clock (instrument to measure or keep track of time)

Derived terms

Descendants

Further reading


North Frisian

Etymology

From Old Frisian . Cognate with West Frisian jimme.

Pronoun

jam

  1. you (plural)
  2. your (plural)

Polish

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /jam/
  • Rhymes: -am
  • Syllabification: jam

Noun

jam f

  1. genitive plural of jama

Pronoun

jam

  1. (informal, sometimes proscribed) Combined form of ja + -m

Further reading

  • jam in Polish dictionaries at PWN

Slovene

Noun

jam

  1. genitive dual/plural of jama

Swedish

Pronunciation

Noun

jam n

  1. meow (sound of a cat)
    Synonym: (more common) mjau

Declension

Declension of jam 
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative jam jamet jam jamen
Genitive jams jamets jams jamens

Related terms

Anagrams


Welsh

Etymology

From English jam.

Pronunciation

Noun

jam m (plural jamiau, not mutable)

  1. jam
    Synonym: cyffaith

Further reading

  • R. J. Thomas, G. A. Bevan, P. J. Donovan, A. Hawke et al., editors (1950–present), “jam”, in Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru Online (in Welsh), University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh & Celtic Studies

West Frisian

Etymology

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Noun

jam c (plural jams)

  1. jam, fruit preserves

Alternative forms

Further reading

  • jam (I)”, in Wurdboek fan de Fryske taal (in Dutch), 2011