ne

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Translingual

Symbol

ne

  1. (international standards) ISO 639-1 language code for Nepali.

English

Etymology

From Middle English ne, from Old English ne, from Proto-West Germanic *ne, from Proto-Germanic *ne, from Proto-Indo-European *ne.

Cognates include Gothic 𐌽𐌹 (ni), Latin , Sanskrit (), Bulgarian, Serbo-Croatian and Russian не (ne), Lithuanian ne, Irish .

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /nə/
  • (file)
  • Rhymes:

Adverb

ne (not comparable)

  1. (obsolete) Not.

Conjunction

ne

  1. (obsolete) Nor.
    • 1484, Original Letters, King Edward the Fifth, under the direction of his Uncle, to Otes Gilbert, Esq., commanding him to receive Knighthood at the expected Coronation:
      That than I shall not geve therunto faith ne credence, nor therfore put them to any maner ponyssement, before that they or any of them so accused may be at their lawful defence and answer.
    • 1489, The gouernayle of helthe:
      And therin is no drede nor bytternes ne expences, but therin is pure recreacyon of body and of soule soo it be donn in clene places.
    • 1489, The gouernayle of helthe:
      Be not to hasty ne sodenly vengeable, to poure folke doo no vyolence.
    • 1489, The gouernayle of helthe:
      Moreouer no man be so hardy to drynk fastyng cold water, ne after that he hath accompanyed wyth a woman, ne after gret trauayle, ne after exersice tyll he haue fyrst rested hym, ne by nyght namely yf he haue do gloue tofore.
    • 1500, The Example of Euyll Tongues:
      A false tonge wyll euer Imagyne and saye / That neuer by creature was sayd ne thought.
    • 1509, Wynkyn de Worde, The fyftene joyes of maryage:
      For chastyce can he not by daye ne nyght his wyfe but by his betynge maketh lyght and hote the loue bytwene her and her frende.
    • 1511, The Records of the City of Norwich:
      Item, that noo woman nor maide weyve any worsted stamynges ne sayes for that that thei be nott of sufficient powre to werke the said worsteddes as thei owte to be wrought, upon payne of iij s iiij d as often as thei be founde wevyng to be devyded and leuyed in maner and forme aboue expressed.
    • 1520, Richard Pynson, The Lyfe of The Blessed Martyr Saynte Thomas:
      That they shulde no lenger kepe ne susteyne Thomas the archebysshope.
    • 1526, The Grete Herball:
      The rote ought to be gadered in the begynnynge of somer and dryed in the sonne bycause ¬t it corrupt ne rotte bycause of the moystnesse & it may be kept two yeres;
    • 1535, Thomas Elyot, The Education or Bringing up of Children:
      For lyinge is a detestable vice, and to be hated of all men, ne to be suffred amonge seruantis ne other persones howe poure estate so euer they be of.
    • 1542, Nicholas Udall, Apophthegms (translation):
      Thus some persones beeyng inuited and exhorted to falle to the studie of lettres, make their excuse that thei bee sickely, that thei can not slepe ne take their naturall reste in the nightes.
    • 1558, Thomas Phaer, The Aeneid (translation):
      We Moores be not so base of wit, ne yet so blunt of mynd.
    • c1560, Edward Gosynhill, The Schoolhouse of Women:
      The deuyll gossyp, ought me a shame / And prayde I am nowe, euerye penye I wolde god he had, be blinde and lame / The daye and houre, he fyrste woed me / Ware not gossyp, these chyldren thre I wolde not tary, ye may be sure / Longer with hym, daye ne houre.
    • 1562, Arthur Brooke, The Tragical History of Romeus and Juliet:
      Neither extremitie, ne gentle meanes could boote; she hydeth close within her brest, her secret sorowes roote.
    • 1562, Arthur Brooke, The Tragical History of Romeus and Juliet:
      Ne on her teares or plaint, at all to have remorse, but (if they can not with her will,) to bring the mayde perforce.
    • 1570, John Thynne, The Debate betweene Pride and Lowlines:
      His hart encreaseth not thereby ne lesseth as edoon these fooles.
    • 1577, The Hereford Municipal Manuscript:
      And that no victualer ne other person or persons forestall any kynde of victualls cominge to the said Cyty or within the precyncte of the same before the same victualls be come to the place.
    • 1587, Gascoigne and Kinwelmershe, Jocasta:
      Ioc: How can that be and thou my ioy in warre? Po: Henceforth n'am I your ioy ne yet your sonne.
    • 1590, Edmund Spenser, The Faerie Qveene. , London: [John Wolfe] for VVilliam Ponsonbie, OCLC 960102938, book III, canto 1:
      But to her cry they list not lenden eare, / Ne ought the more their mightie strokes surceasse.
    • 1634, W. Lathum:
      Whose worth all outward is in shew alone / But inward sent hath not, ne vertue none.
    • 1798, Samuel Coleridge, "The Rime of the Ancient Mariner", ll. 443-6:
      The pang, the curse, with which they died, / Had never pass'd away; / I could not draw my een from theirs / Ne turn them up to pray.

Usage notes

  • Ne survives only as part of the oral tradition in rural Scotland and Northern England. It is almost never used in common speech.

Derived terms

Anagrams


Afar

Pronunciation

Pronoun

  1. we, us

Usage notes

  • The form née is used when the pronoun isn't followed by a clitic.

See also

References

  • E. M. Parker; R. J. Hayward (1985), “ne”, in An Afar-English-French dictionary (with Grammatical Notes in English), University of London, →ISBN

Ainu

Pronunciation

Verb

ne (Kana spelling )

  1. (intransitive, copulative) to be, become
    Ainu ne ruwe ne.
    He is an Ainu.

Derived terms

See also

  • an (to exist)

Albanian

Alternative forms

Etymology

The nominative-accusative is from accusative Proto-Albanian *nōs, stressed form of clitic Proto-Indo-European *nos, which is continued by the clitic na. Neve and nesh are innovated, but Gheg retains dative nahe (Old Albanian nae) from a genitive *nosōm.

Pronunciation

Pronoun

ne (accusative ne, dative neve, ablative nesh)

  1. we, us

Declension

See also

References

  1. ^ Fialuur i voghel Sccyp e ltinisct (Small Dictionary of Albanian and Latin), page 85, by P. Jak Junkut, 1895, Sckoder
  2. ^ Orel, Vladimir (1998), “ne”, in Albanian Etymological Dictionary, Leiden, Boston, Cologne: Brill, →ISBN, page 289

Blagar

Noun

ne

  1. human, person

References


Breton

Etymology

From Proto-Brythonic *ni.

Particle

ne

  1. not

Usage notes

Used combined with ket, mirroring French ne ... pas.


Catalan

Pronoun

ne (enclitic, contracted 'n, proclitic en, contracted proclitic n')

  1. represents an indeterminate number or quantity of a given noun
  2. represents a place (associated with the action described by the verb) that would be introduced by the preposition de
  3. replaces a phrase introduced by the preposition de
  4. replaces the object of a causative verb

Usage notes

  • ne cannot be used more than once as the object of a given verb.
  • While ne is usually used to replace phrases beginning with the preposition de, adverbial phrases (eg de pressa) are replaced with hi.
  • ne is sometimes used instead of ho to replace an adjective or indefinite noun as the predicate of a verb.
  • ne is sometimes used popularly to add emphasis to a sentence: in this sense, it has no translation in English.
  • -ne is the full (plena) form of the pronoun. It is normally used after verbs ending with consonant or ⟨u⟩, or between some adverbs/pronouns and a verb. In some varieties of Catalan (Balearic/Valencian) it can also occur in sentence-initial position.

See also


Chuukese

Conjunction

ne

  1. to (connects verbs)

Preposition

ne

  1. Expressing a fraction or a ratio. Preceded by a nominator and followed by the denominator.

Czech

Etymology

From Old Czech ne, from Proto-Slavic *ne, from Proto-Balto-Slavic *ne, from Proto-Indo-European *ne.

Pronunciation

Interjection

ne

  1. no!

Particle

ne

  1. not

See also

Further reading

  • ne in Příruční slovník jazyka českého, 1935–1957
  • ne in Slovník spisovného jazyka českého, 1960–1971, 1989

Dalmatian

Etymology

From Latin nec, neque. Compare Italian , Spanish, Catalan and French ni, Romanian nici.

Adverb

ne

  1. neither

Deg

Noun

ne

  1. water

References


Dutch

Alternative forms

Etymology

From nen through apocope, itself a contraction of eenen, enen, the now-obsolete accusative form of een.

Pronunciation

Article

ne

  1. (Brabant) a, an
    ne man
    a man

Usage notes

ne is used primarily in the dialects that retain the three-gender split. It is only used for masculine words, while een is used for feminine and neuter words.

The form nen is used before vowels (as the English an) and certain consonants (commonly b, d and t), differing from dialect to dialect.

See also

Anagrams


Eastern Huasteca Nahuatl

Determiner

ne

  1. that.

Pronoun

ne

  1. that.

Esperanto

Etymology

From French ne, Polish nie, Russian не (ne), etc.

Pronunciation

Particle

ne

  1. no
  2. not
  3. non-

Antonyms


Finnish

Etymology

From Proto-Finnic *nek, from Proto-Uralic *ne + *-k (dual ending). Compare Erzya неть (netʹ).

For the inflectional stems ni-, see se. nii- possibly derives from ni- with the plural infix (-i-).

Pronunciation

Pronoun

ne (plural, stem nii-)

  1. (demonstrative, of things and animals) they, those (plural of the pronoun se (it); objects not pointed at by the speaker)
  2. (colloquial, dialectal, of people) they
    Synonym: he

Determiner

ne

  1. those, the (not pointed at by the speaker)
    Tässä ne kirjat nyt ovat.
    This is where those books are now.

Inflection

The case suffixes are mostly regular (except inessive and elative singular). Abessive is never used in singular and extremely seldom in plural. Instructive niin is more or less a theoretical construction, since it has developed into an adverb, and its current meaning cannot be derived from ne.

Descendants

  • Kven: net
  • Meänkieli: net

See also

Anagrams


French

Etymology

From Middle French, from Old French nen or ne preceding words starting in a consonant, from Latin nōn.

Pronunciation

Particle

ne

  1. (literary) not (used alone to negate a verb; now chiefly with only a few particular verbs: see usage notes)
    • 1713, Voltaire, letter, Dec 1713:
      Je ne sais si je dois vous appeler Monsieur ou Mademoiselle .
      I don't know if I should call you Mr or Miss.
    • 1826, Victor Hugo, Bug-Jargal, XXXVIII:
      Le prince de France nous aime, celui d'Espagne ne cesse de nous secourir.
      The prince of France loves us, that of Spain never stops helping us.
    • 1868, Emile Zola, Madeleine Férat:
      Je n'ose te jurer que je t'aime toujours, parce que je sens bien que tu ne me croirais pas.
      I dare not swear that I still love you, for I sense that you would not believe me.
    • 1943, Jean-Paul Sartre, Réflexions sur la question juive:
      Mais je ne le crois pas : un homme qui trouve naturel de dénoncer des hommes ne peut avoir notre conception de l'humain .
      But I don't think so: a man who finds it natural to denounce men cannot have our idea of being human.
  2. not, no (used before a verb, with a coordinating negative element usually following; see Usage Notes, below)
    • 1851, Henri Murger, Le pays latin:
      Je ne sais rien de plus odieux que l'hypocrisie.
      I don't know anything more odious than hypocrisy.
    • 1998, Michel Houellebecq, Les Particules Élémentaires:
      Bruno se rendit compte qu'il ne serait jamais accepté par les hippies .
      Bruno realised that he'd never be accepted by the hippies.
    • 2012, Le Monde, 3 May 2012:
      "Il n'y a pas eu un truc auquel on ne s'attendait pas", affirme Stéphane Le Foll.
      "There wasn't anything we weren't expecting," stated Stéphane Le Foll.
  3. Used in a subordinate clause before a subjunctive verb (especially when the main verb expresses doubt or fear), to provide extra overtones of doubt or uncertainty (but not negating its verb); the so-called "pleonastic" or "expletive" ne.
    • 1829, Victor Hugo, Le Derner Jour d'un Condamné, XXVII:
      Ah! mes cheveux blanchiront avant que ma tête ne tombe!
      Oh! My hair will go white before my head falls!
    • 1837, George Sand, Mauprat:
      Oui, mais je crains qu'elle ne soit plus malade qu'elle ne l'avoue, repartit l'abbé.
      "Yes, but I think she might be more ill than she's letting on," the priest replied.
  4. In comparative clauses usually translated with the positive sense of the subsequent negative
    Apprendre le français est plus facile qu'on ne pense.
    Learning French is easier than you (might) think.

Usage notes

  • Typically, ne follows the subject and is itself followed by the verb and:
    • a negative adverbial (pas (not; don't/doesn't), plus (no more, no longer), jamais (never), guère (hardly), or (now literary) point (not a bit));
    • a nominal element modified by a negative determiner (aucun or nul, both meaning "no", "not a") — note that these phrases can take on nominal, pronominal or adverbial functions;
    • More mobile are negative pronouns, the commonest being personne (nobody) and rien (nothing), which will follow ne and the verb if they function as the object complement of that verb, but if they are the subject of a given clause, they will usually sit at its head:
    Personne ne s'en souviendra demain.No body will remember about it tomorrow.
    Rien ne le dérange.Nothing bothers him.
  • In literary French (i.e., the most formal variety of the written language) certain verbs can be negated with ne alone (without another negating element like pas). Nowadays, this list is restricted chiefly to the verbs pouvoir, savoir, cesser, oser, and daigner. Less formal registers still require coordination with another negative element.
  • In colloquial (i.e., spoken) French, ne is often omitted, leaving the other negating element (pas, plus, rien, personne, etc.) to indicate the sentence's negative state on its own (unless more than one of these elements is already present).
    Je veux pas ça.I don't want that.
    Il attend personne.He's not waiting for anyone.
    J'en ai plus besoin.I don't need it anymore.
    On va nulle part.We're not going anywhere.
In some regions, ne has disappeared from spoken language either entirely or nearly so. Even when it is included in spoken form, the weak "e" is often elided, causing the remaining /n/ to assimilate into nearby words. Compare a few possible versions of the above example, Je veux pas ça, more or less rising in levels of formality:
J' veux pas ça. /ʒ‿vø pɑ sa/
Je veux pas ça. /ʒə vø pɑ sa/
Je n' veux pas ça. /ʒə̃ vø pɑ sa/
Je ne veux pas ça. /ʒə nə vø pɑ sa/, /ʒə‿n.vø pɑ sa/

See also

Further reading

Anagrams


German

Etymology 1

Contraction of nicht, dialectal net, nit, ni.

Pronunciation

Interjection

ne

  1. (colloquial) right?; is it?; is it not?; tag question
    Synonyms: gell, nicht, nicht wahr, oder, wa
    Wir müssen da lang, ne?
    We need to go that way, don't we?
    Du hast keine Geschwister, ne?
    You don't have siblings, do you?

Etymology 2

Pronunciation

Interjection

ne

  1. Alternative spelling of nee

Etymology 3

Pronunciation

Article

ne

  1. Alternative spelling of 'ne

German Low German

Article

ne f

  1. (Paderbornisch) nominative/accusative feminine singular of en: a

Pronoun

ne m

  1. (Paderbornisch) weak accusative of hei: him

See also


Gothic

Romanization

  1. Romanization of 𐌽𐌴

Hungarian

Pronunciation

Adverb

ne

  1. don't, should/shall not, stop (doing something)
    Ne hallgass rá!Don't listen to him!
    Ne felejtsd el! or (more emphatically) El ne felejtsd!(Mind you) don't forget it!
    Miért ne? (= Miért ne csináljuk/tegyük?)Why not? (literally, “Why shouldn't ?”)
    Bár ne tettem volna!I wish I hadn't done it.
    Ne lopj!Thou shalt not steal.

Usage notes

Used before the verb in an imperative clause (or sometimes a conditional clause expressing a wish or desire) to negate that clause; ne is always used instead of nem in the imperative mood.

Derived terms

(Compound words)

Expressions

Further reading

  • ne in Bárczi, Géza and László Országh. A magyar nyelv értelmező szótára (‘The Explanatory Dictionary of the Hungarian Language’). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1959–1962. Fifth ed., 1992: →ISBN

Ido

Etymology

From Esperanto ne, from French ne, Russian не (ne).

Pronunciation

Adverb

ne

  1. not, don’t

Noun

ne (plural ne-i)

  1. The name of the Latin script letter N/n.

See also

Derived terms

  • ne- (non-, un-, in-, im-, ir- (etc.))

Ingrian

Pronunciation

Pronoun

ne

  1. Alternative form of neet
    • 1936, L. G. Terehova; V. G. Erdeli, Mihailov and P. I. Maksimov, transl., Geografia: oppikirja iƶoroin alkușkoulun kolmatta klaassaa vart (ensimäine osa), Leningrad: Riikin Ucebno-Pedagogiceskoi Izdateljstva, page 6:
      Miltaisee poolee ne ollaa opettajast?
      On which side of the teacher are they?

Determiner

ne

  1. Alternative form of neet

Anagrams

References

  • Ruben E. Nirvi (1971) Inkeroismurteiden Sanakirja, Helsinki: Suomalais-Ugrilainen Seura, page 338

Isthmus Zapotec

Conjunction

ne

  1. and

Istro-Romanian

Etymology

From Latin nix, nivem, through Proto-Romanian (compare Romanian nea, Aromanian neao), from Proto-Italic *sniks, from Proto-Indo-European *snígʷʰs (snow), root noun derived from *sneygʷʰ- (to snow).

Noun

ne f (definite nevu, genitive/dative lu nevu)

  1. snow

Italian

Etymology 1

From Latin inde (thence). Compare French en (adverb, pronoun).

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): °/ne/°
  • IPA(key): (traditional) /ne/°
  • Rhymes: -e
  • Hyphenation: ne
  • In modern usage but not traditional usage, this word actively blocks syntactic gemination of its initial consonant. Hence però ne prendo (I (will) take some) is pronounced /peˈrɔ ne ˈprɛndo/ in modern usage, but /peˈrɔ‿nne ˈprɛndo/ traditionally, since però normally triggers syntactic gemination.

Adverb

ne

  1. from there
    Ne uscirono tre.Three of them came out from there.
Usage notes
  • The adverb ne replaces di (from there):
Sono di Genova; ne sono venuto stamattina.
I am from Genoa; I came from there this morning.

Pronoun

ne

  1. about it
    Ne ho sentito parlare.I have heard about it.
    Cosa ne pensi?What do you think about it?
  2. of it
    C'è della torta? Ne voglio una fetta.Is there any cake? I want a slice of it.
  3. of them (sometimes not translated in English)
    Non ne ho più.I've got no more (of them) left.
Usage notes
  • The pronoun ne stands for di + , and can thus be a translation of “ + it/them” for any preposition that is translated as di in Italian.
See also

Etymology 2

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): °°/ne/*
  • Rhymes: -e
  • Hyphenation: ne
  • This word triggers syntactic gemination of the following consonant, and may or may not block syntactic gemination of its initial consonant (contrast the pronominal usage above).

Contraction

ne

  1. Apocopic form of nel
    Massimo Troisi non ha vinto un oscar per la sua interpretazione ne "Il postino".
    Massimo Troisi did not win an Oscar for his performance in "Il Postino".
Usage notes
  • The contraction ne is used where nel, nella, etc, would ordinarily be used, but cannot be because the article is part of the title of a film, book, etc.
See also

Japanese

Romanization

ne

  1. Rōmaji transcription of
  2. Rōmaji transcription of

Kalasha

Determiner

ne

  1. no

Particle

ne

  1. no

Karelian

Etymology

From Proto-Finnic *nek, from Proto-Uralic *ne. Cognates include Finnish ne and Estonian need.

Pronunciation

Determiner

ne

  1. these, those

Pronoun

ne

  1. these, those
  2. they (inanimate)

Declension

See also

Karelian personal pronouns
first second third
singular mie šie hiän
plural myö työ hyö

References

  • P. M. Zaykov (1999) Грамматика Карельского языка (фонетика и морфология) [Grammar of the Karelian language (phonetics and morphology)], →ISBN, page 58

Ladin

Adverb

ne

  1. not

Latin

Pronunciation

Etymology 1

Extended from Proto-Indo-European *ne (not) (whence Old Latin ne (not)). Cognates include Proto-Germanic *ne (whence Gothic 𐌽𐌹 (ni) and Old English ne), Sanskrit (), Bulgarian, Serbo-Croatian and Russian не (ne), Lithuanian ne, Irish .

Adverb

(not comparable)

  1. no, not
Derived terms

Conjunction

(+ subjunctive)

  1. that not, in order not to and similar; lest
    quem post sē hostem relinqueretin order not to leave any enemy behind himself
    (Caesar, de Bello Gallico, VII, 11)
    sī reliquam partem hiemis ūnō locō legiōnēs continēret, stipendiāriīs Aeduōrum expugnātis cūncta Gallia dēficeret lest if he should confine his legions in one place for the remaining part of the winter, all Gaul would revolt when the stipendiaries of the Aedui were subdued
    (Caesar, de Bello Gallico, VII, 10)
    veritus noctū ex oppidō prōfugerenthe feared lest should escape by night
    (Caesar, de Bello Gallico, VII, 11)
    Vereor, videātur ōrātiō mea stulta. :
    I fear lest my oration seem foolish.
Usage notes
  • Not to be confused with the affirmative particle ne (see Etymology 2).
Derived terms
Related terms

Etymology 2

From Proto-Indo-European *h₁enos (that one), the source also of Latin enim (truly!, indeed!). Cognates include Ancient Greek νή (nḗ), ναί (naí).

Interjection

  1. truly!, indeed!; only joined with personal pronouns and commonly connected with other affirmative particles
    • 44 BCE – 43 BCE, Cicero, Philippics :
      At enim te in disciplinam meam tradideras—nam ita dixisti—domum meam ventitaras. Ne tu, si id fecisses, melius famae, melius pudicitiae tuae consuluisses.
      You had however committed yourself to my instruction and frequented my house, or so you claimed. You would certainly have been more mindful of your virtue and reputation if you had!

Latvian

Etymology

From Proto-Balto-Slavic *ne, from Proto-Indo-European *ne.

Pronunciation

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Conjunction

ne

  1. not
    ne tikainot only
    ne visainot quite

Lithuanian

Etymology

From Proto-Balto-Slavic *ne, from Proto-Indo-European *ne.

Pronunciation

Interjection

ne

  1. no (used to show disagreement or negation)

Livonian

Pronunciation

Pronoun

ne

  1. they; nominative plural of tämā

Luganda

Conjunction

ne

  1. and (only used if the overall statement is grammatically positive)

See also

References

The Essentials of Luganda, J. D. Chesswas, 4th edition. Oxford University Press: Nairobi. 1967, p. 94.

This entry has fewer than three known examples of actual usage, the minimum considered necessary for clear attestation, and may not be reliable. Luganda is subject to a special exemption for languages with limited documentation. If you speak it, please consider editing this entry or adding citations. See also Help and the Community Portal.

Mandarin

Pronunciation

Romanization

ne (ne5 / ne0, Zhuyin ˙ㄋㄜ)

  1. Hanyu Pinyin reading of , .
  2. Hanyu Pinyin reading of .

ne

  1. Nonstandard spelling of .
  2. Nonstandard spelling of .

Usage notes

  • English transcriptions of Mandarin speech often fail to distinguish between the critical tonal differences employed in the Mandarin language, using words such as this one without the appropriate indication of tone.

Mezquital Otomi

Etymology 1

From Proto-Otomi , from Proto-Otomian , from Proto-Oto-Pamean *neʔ.

Pronunciation

Verb

ne

  1. (trans) want

Etymology 2

From Proto-Otomi *ne, from Proto-Otomian *ne, from Proto-Oto-Pamean *te/*ne, from Proto-Oto-Manguean *(Y)te(H)³.

Alternative forms

Pronunciation

Noun

ne

  1. mouth
  2. snout
  3. edge (of a blade)
  4. bite, sting
  5. animals at the head of the herd

References

  • Andrews, Enriqueta (1950) Vocabulario otomí de Tasquillo, Hidalgo (in Spanish), México, D.F.: Instituto Lingüístico de Verano, pages 19, 47, 74
  • Hernández Cruz, Luis; Victoria Torquemada, Moisés (2010) Diccionario del hñähñu (otomí) del Valle del Mezquital, estado de Hidalgo (Serie de vocabularios y diccionarios indígenas “Mariano Silva y Aceves”; 45)‎ (in Spanish), second edition, Instituto Lingüístico de Verano, A.C., page 210

Middle Dutch

Etymology

From Old Dutch ne, from Proto-Germanic *ne, from Proto-Indo-European *ne.

Adverb

ne

  1. not

Usage notes

Immediately precedes the verb. Often found in combination with the synonymous niet or another negating adverb, which is placed elsewhere.

Alternative forms

Descendants

  • Dutch: n- (prefix)

Further reading


Middle English

Alternative forms

Etymology

From Old English ne, from Proto-West Germanic *ne, from Proto-Germanic *ne, from Proto-Indo-European *ne.

Pronunciation

Adverb

ne

  1. not (negates the accompanying verb)
    Þei ne bileveden hire nought.They didn't believe her.
    • 13??, Geoffrey Chaucer, "The Knight's Portrait" (line 70), The Canterbury Tales.
      He nevere yet no vileynye ne sayde.
  2. not (to no degree, extent, or way)
    Þou ne art weyke.You aren't weak.

Usage notes

  • Middle English lacks do-support. Instead, ne is simply used by itself: Puple deien, bot fame ne deieþ ("People die, but reputation does not die").
  • Middle English has negative concord, so negatives don't cancel out another, unlike formal English or Latin. ne is often accompanied by other negatives rather than used alone. Double, triple, and quadruple negatives are common: I ne oght no man noght ("I haven't owed anything to anyone," literally "I not owed no one nothing").
  • ne usually immediately precedes the verb; compare nought / nat, which usually follows it.

Related terms

Descendants

  • English: ne (obsolete)
  • Scots: ne (obsolete)

References

Conjunction

ne

  1. nor (and not, or (not), not)
  2. lest (in case, before)
  3. than (introducing a basis of comparison)

Usage notes

  • ne can contract with certain words that follow it, such as ne wasnas. This is optional, so forms like ne was are possible.
  • ne... ne... is often found in correlative constructions, with the meaning of not... or...; this is comparable to modern English neither... (n)or....

Descendants

  • English: ne (obsolete)
  • Scots: ne (obsolete)

References


Middle French

Etymology 1

Alternative forms

Adverb

ne

  1. not (used to negate a verb)
    • 1488, Jean Dupré, Lancelot du Lac, page 22:
      Ha ha pourdieu franc chevalier et preux ne me occisez mie
      Ha! For the love of God honest and valiant knight, don't kill me!
    • 1530, François Rabelais, Pantagruel:
      et ne m'advint oncques de mentir ou asseurer chose que ne feust veritable
      It never happened to me to lie or to assure someone of something that wasn't truthful
    • 1562, Henry IV of France, Lettres Missives:
      Catherine de Médicis, ne tarda pas à faire venir auprès de lui, en 1561, sa femme et ses enfants.
      Catherine of Medicis did not hesitate to bring to him, in 1561, his wife and his children
Usage notes
  • As in modern French, may be used in combination with another adverb, such as ne... iamais, ne... pas, ne... gaire, ne... mie, ne... oncques, ne... poin(c)t and ne... rien(s), but such an adverb is not required.

Etymology 2

See ny

Conjunction

ne

  1. Alternative form of ny (neither; nor)

Mohawk

Article

ne

  1. the

Negerhollands

Pronunciation

Verb

ne

  1. take

References

  • Language Contact in the Danish West Indies (2012, →ISBN

Nheengatu

Etymology

From Old Tupi ne. Cognate with Guaraní nde.

Pronunciation

Headset icon.svg This entry needs audio files. If you are a native speaker with a microphone, please record some and upload them. (For audio required quickly, visit WT:APR.)
  • Hyphenation: ne
  • Rhymes: -e

Pronoun

ne

  1. (second-class) second-person singular personal pronoun (you, your)
    Ne akanhemu reikú nhaãsé ne kirá reikú.
    You are scared because you are fat.
    Aé uputari upitá ne irũmu.
    He wants to stay with you.
    Ne manha uwiké uka pisasú upé.
    Your mother enters the new house.

Usage notes

  • As a second-class pronoun, ne is used as the subject of a sentence when its verb is a second-class one (those verbs are sometimes referred to as adjectives). The personal pronoun ne is also used when governed by any postposition with the exception of arama and supé. Finally, ne is used as a possessive pronoun as well.

See also

Nheengatu personal pronouns
singular first-class pronoun second-class pronoun
first-person ixé se
second-person indé ne
third-person i
plural first-class pronoun second-class pronoun
first-person yandé yané
second-person penhẽ pe
third-person aintá (or ) aintá (or )

References


Northern Kurdish

Etymology

From Proto-Iranian *na, from Proto-Indo-Iranian *na, from Proto-Indo-European *ne. Related to na.

Adverb

ne

  1. not
    Ez ne kurd im.
    I'm not Kurdish.

Interjection

ne

  1. no

Northern Ndebele

Etymology

From Proto-Bantu *-nàì.

Adjective

-ne

  1. four

Inflection

Adjective concord, tone L
Modifier Copulative
1st singular engimune ngimune
2nd singular omune umune
1st plural esibane sibane
2nd plural elibane libane
Class 1 omune mune
Class 2 abane bane
Class 3 omune mune
Class 4 emine mine
Class 5 eline line
Class 6 amane mane
Class 7 esine sine
Class 8 ezine zine
Class 9 ene ine
Class 10 ezine zine
Class 11 olune lune
Class 14 obune bune
Class 15 okune kune
Class 17 okune kune

Norwegian Nynorsk

Alternative forms

Etymology

From Old Norse nið f, possibly from Proto-Germanic *nidwō (sinking; downfall).

Pronunciation

Noun

ne n (plural neet)

  1. a lunar phase of an old moon, i.e. period of time in which the moon is waning
    Antonym: ny

Derived terms

References

Anagrams


Old English

Etymology

From Proto-Germanic *ne (not).

Pronunciation

Adverb

ne

  1. not
    Sēo lǣrestre ne meahte furðum mīnes naman ġemunan.
    The teacher could not even remember my name.

Usage notes

  • Old English does not have do-support. Instead, ne is simply used by itself: Menn sweltaþ, ac hlīsa ne swilt ("People die, but reputation does not die").
  • Ne is placed immediately before the finite verb.
  • Ne negates verbs. Other parts of speech are negated with : Iċ eom lǣċe, forspennend ("I'm a doctor, not a pimp"), Iċ hīe fræġn "Hū wæs þīn færeld?" and hēo cwæþ " yfel" ("I asked her 'How was your trip?' and she said 'Not bad'"). is also used when the verb is only implied: Ne rēċe iċ hwæðer mē hwā ġelīefe þē ("I don't care if anyone believes me or not").
  • Ne and its accompanying verb often come at the beginning of a sentence: Ne meahte nān mann tōcnāwan hwelcre mægðe hē wǣre ("Nobody could tell what tribe he was," literally "Couldn't nobody tell what tribe he was").
  • Old English has negative concord, meaning one negative doesn't cancel out another. Double, triple, and quadruple negatives are very common: Ne sċolde iċ nǣfre nānum menn nāwiht ("I've never owed anything to anyone," literally "I never not owed no one nothing").
  • In a few verbs beginning with a vowel, h, or w, ne actually fuses with the verb, creating nesan (to not be), nabban (to not have), nyllan (to not want), nytan (to not know), and nāgan (to not own). In the West Saxon dialect (the dialect of most surviving texts and sometimes referred to as "standard" Old English), the contracted forms are the norm, while in other dialects the uncontracted forms ne wesan, ne habban, etc. are also common.

Conjunction

ne

  1. (in negative phrases) or, and not (optionally translated as "nor")
    Þurh þissa þinga ġehāt sind cumene tō anwealde unmenn. Ac hīe lēogaþ, ne ġelǣstaþ hīe þæt ġehāt, ne hīe nǣfre nyllaþ!
    By the promise of these things, brutes have risen to power. But they lie, they do not fulfill that promise, and they never will!
    Ne lufiġe iċ þæt beorhte sweord for his sċearpnesse, ne þone flān for his swiftnesse, ne þone cempan for his wuldre. Þæt ān iċ lufiġe þæt þe hīe beweriaþ.
    I do not love the bright sword for its sharpness, nor the arrow for its swiftness, nor the warrior for his glory. I love only that which they defend.
    • c. 996, Ælfric's Lives of Saints
      Sē enġel him cwæþ tō, "Ne cyss þū mīne fēt, ne þū mē ne hrepe."
      The angel said to him, "Don't kiss my feet, and don't touch me."
    • late 9th century, King Alfred's translation of The Consolation of Philosophy
      Nān mann hine ne cann, ne hē nānne mann ne furðum þæt ġeþēode.
      No one knows him, and he doesn't know anyone or even the language.
  2. ne... ne... is used to mean " or..." (optionally translated as "neither... nor...")
    Iċ næbbe ne frīend ne fīend. Wrace iċ hæbbe.
    I don't have friends or enemies. I have revenge.

Usage notes

  • In the phrase " or...", ne is often used consecutively for "or": Iċ nāt ne ne rēċe hwelċes cynnes fugol hit sīe, hit is mīn frēond ("I don't know or care what kind of bird it is, it's my friend").

Descendants

  • Middle English: ne, ny, ni
    • English: ne (obsolete)
    • Scots: ne (obsolete)

Old French

Etymology 1

From Latin nōn.

Alternative forms

  • nen (poetic, after vowels)

Adverb

ne

  1. not; used to form negative constructions
Descendants
  • French: ne

Etymology 2

From Latin nec.

Conjunction

ne

  1. neither (not one or the other)
Descendants
  • French: ni

Old Frisian

Alternative forms

Etymology

From Proto-Germanic *ne (not). Cognates include Old English ne and Old Saxon ne.

Pronunciation

Adverb

ne

  1. not

Descendants

  • North Frisian:
    Heligoland: ni

Conjunction

ne

  1. nor

Particle

ne

  1. no

Synonyms

References

  • Bremmer, Rolf H. (2009) An Introduction to Old Frisian: History, Grammar, Reader, Glossary, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, →ISBN

Old Saxon

Alternative forms

Etymology

From Proto-Germanic *ne.

Adverb

ne

  1. not

Descendants

  • Middle Low German: ne, en

Pali

Alternative forms

Adjective

ne

  1. accusative plural masculine of na (those)

Pronoun

ne

  1. accusative plural of na (them, those)

Phuthi

Etymology

From Proto-Bantu *-nàì.

Adjective

-ne

  1. four

Inflection

Adjective concord, tone L
Modifier Copulative
1st singular legimune gimune
2nd singular lomune umune
1st plural lesibane sibane
2nd plural lelibane libane
Class 1 lamune mhune
Class 2 labane bhane
Class 3 lomune mhune
Class 4 lemine mhine
Class 5 leline lhine
Class 6 lamane mhane
Class 7 lesine ssine
Class 8 letine ttine
Class 9 lene yhine
Class 10 letine ttine
Class 14 lobune bhune
Class 15 lokune kkune
Class 17 lokune kkune

Rawang

Noun

ne

  1. eye.

Romanian

Alternative forms

  • нє (pre-1860s Cyrillic form)

Etymology

From Vulgar Latin nīs, from Latin nos. Compare (old form) and Aromanian .

Pronunciation

Pronoun

ne (unstressed accusative and reflexive form of noi)

  1. (direct object, first-person plural) us
    El ne urmează.
    He's following us.

Related terms

  • noi (stressed accusative)

Pronoun

ne (unstressed dative and reflexive form of noi)

  1. (indirect object) (to) us
    Ele ne dau cadouri.
    They give us presents.

Related terms

See also


Saterland Frisian

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /nə/
  • Hyphenation: ne

Article

ne

  1. Form of of n used before feminine adjectives
    Dät is n Gous. Ne grieze Gous.That's a goose. A grey goose.

Scots

Etymology

From Middle English ne, from Old English ne, from Proto-Germanic *ne, from Proto-Indo-European *ne.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /neɪ/, /nɛ/, /nə/, /n(ː)/

Adverb

ne

  1. (archaic, rare) Not.
    Ne look at the sky, when ye tread bumpy roads.
    (please add an English translation of this usage example)
    (A Northern English folk saying)

Conjunction

ne

  1. (archaic, rare) Nor.
    Ne mother, ne father, ne friends, ne foes ne-knew what had worthen of him.
    (please add an English translation of this usage example)

Usage notes

  • Ne is a negative particle and it is used preverbally, i.e. it is placed directly before a verb, for example,ː"What haps might chance me I ne knew" (William Fowler (makar), 1590) and "To suffer exile he said that he ne couth" (Gavin Douglas, Virgil's Aeneid, 1513). Now archaic and chiefly dialectal, it is still understood and used by a few rural speakers in Scotland and Northern England.
  • As a conjunction, it is placed immediately before the word it negates as inː ne mickle, ne little; Twas ne man, ne woman.. ne beast; ne rich, ne poor, ne bold, ne meek, ne stong, ne weak can escape God's wrath.
  • In urban areas and cities became displaced by na or nae.

Further reading


Serbo-Croatian

Etymology

From Proto-Slavic *ne, from Proto-Balto-Slavic *ne, from Proto-Indo-European *ne.

Pronunciation

Particle

ne (Cyrillic spelling не)

  1. not (denoting negation)
    ne znamI don't know
    on je ne samo darovit, već i jako marljivhe is not only talented, but also very industrious
    htio-ne htiowhether you want it or not
    da ne spavaš? / ne spavaš li? / zar ne spavaš?aren't you sleeping?
    ne mogu, a da ne…I cannot but…
    reći neto say no; refuse, decline
    ne manje nego/od…no less than…
    ne doćito fail to come, not come
    … Zar ne?… Aren't you? (Isn't it?, Do you?, Don't you?)
    nećuI won't

Interjection

ne (Cyrillic spelling не)

  1. no
    Jesi li demokrat? Ne!Are you a democrat? No!

Synonyms

  • jok (dialectal)

Antonyms


Slovene

Etymology

From Proto-Slavic *ne, from Proto-Indo-European *ne.

Pronunciation

Particle

  1. not (negates meaning of verb)
  2. no (expresses disapproval, disagreement)

Antonyms

Further reading

  • ne”, in Slovarji Inštituta za slovenski jezik Frana Ramovša ZRC SAZU, portal Fran

Southern Ndebele

Etymology

From Proto-Bantu *-nàì.

Adjective

-ne

  1. four

Inflection

This adjective needs an inflection-table template.


Sumerian

Romanization

ne

  1. Romanization of 𒉈 (ne)

Swazi

Etymology

From Proto-Bantu *-nàì.

Adjective

-ne

  1. four

Inflection

Adjective concord, tone L
Modifier Copulative
1st singular lengimune ngimune
2nd singular lomune umune
1st plural lesibane sibane
2nd plural lenibane nibane
Class 1 lomune mune
Class 2 labane bane
Class 3 lomune mune
Class 4 lemine mine
Class 5 leline line
Class 6 lamane mane
Class 7 lesine sine
Class 8 letine tine
Class 9 lene ine
Class 10 letine tine
Class 11 lolune lune
Class 14 lobune bune
Class 15 lokune kune
Class 17 lokune kune

Ternate

Pronunciation

Determiner

ne

  1. (proximal) this, these
    namo nethis chicken

Pronoun

ne

  1. (demonstrative) this
    ngori tomau neI want this
    ne fokethis is a cockroach

References

  • Rika Hayami-Allen (2001) A descriptive study of the language of Ternate, the northern Moluccas, Indonesia, University of Pittsburgh

Turkish

Etymology 1

From Ottoman Turkish نه(ne, what, whatever, how), from Old Anatolian Turkish (ne, what), from Proto-Turkic *nē- (what). The only Turkic root beginning with /n/. The earliest PT form must have contained a unique initial nasal, having yielded specific reflexes in modern languages.

Cognate with Old Turkic 𐰤𐰀(n²a /ne/, what, which), Karakhanid (, what), Old Uyghur (ne, what), Azerbaijani (what), Salar neñ (what), Bashkir ни (ni, what), Chuvash мӗн (mĕn, what) (metathesis < *ne-me), Kazakh не (ne, what), Khakas ниме (nime, what), Kyrgyz не (ne, what), Tatar ни (ni, what), Turkmen nǟmä (what), Tuvan чүү (çüü, what), Uyghur نېمە(nëme, what), Uzbek na (what), Yakut туох (tuox, what).

Pronoun

ne

  1. what
    Ne istiyorsun?What do you want?
  2. whatever
    Ne istersen yaparım.I will do whatever you want.
Declension
Inflection
Nominative ne
Definite accusative neyi
Singular Plural
Nominative ne neler
Definite accusative neyi neleri
Dative neye nelere
Locative nede nelerde
Ablative neden nelerden
Genitive nenin nelerin
Predicative forms
Singular Plural
1st singular neyim nelerim
2nd singular nesin nelersin
3rd singular ne
nedir
neler
nelerdir
1st plural neyiz neleriz
2nd plural nesiniz nelersiniz
3rd plural neler nelerdir
Related terms

Adverb

ne

  1. what, how, such
    Ne güzel!How beautiful!
    Ne güzel bir gün!What a beautiful day!
  2. Used as an intensifier to express surprise, astonishment, together with expressions like be!, ha!.
    Ne osurdun be!You farted such (that probably the whole world heard it).

Etymology 2

From Ottoman Turkish نه(ne, neither; nor), from Persian نه(na). Cognate to Old English ne (not).

Conjunction

ne

  1. neither; nor
    Ne bu ne şuNeither this nor that
Usage notes
  • Not used alone but rather as ne...ne..., the way it is used is directly copied from Persian نه...نه...(“neither; nor”).
Antonyms

Etymology 3

Noun

ne

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter N.

See also

References

  1. ^ Starostin, Sergei; Dybo, Anna; Mudrak, Oleg (2003), “*nē-”, in Etymological dictionary of the Altaic languages (Handbuch der Orientalistik; VIII.8), Leiden, New York, Köln: E.J. Brill

Tuvaluan

Particle

ne

  1. past tense marker, inserted immediately before the relevant verb

Unami

Pronunciation

Pronoun

  1. that (inanimate)

See also


Ura (Vanuatu)

Pronunciation

Noun

ne

  1. water
  2. river

Further reading

  • Terry Crowley, Ura: A Disappearing Language of Southern Vanuatu (1999)

West Makian

Etymology

Likely cognate with Ternate ne (this).

Pronunciation

Determiner

ne

  1. (proximal) this, these
    pala ne ilamothis house is large
    nudupe de ngeu nethrow away these leftovers
    Synonyms: mene, nema
    Antonym: ma

References

  • Clemens Voorhoeve (1982) The Makian languages and their neighbours, Pacific linguistics

Xhosa

Etymology

From Proto-Bantu *-nàì.

Adjective

-ne

  1. four

Inflection

Adjective concord, tone L
Modifier Copulative
positive negative positive negative
1st singular endimne endingemne ndimne andimne
2nd singular omne ongemne umne awumne
1st plural esibane esingebane sibane asibane
2nd plural enibane eningebane nibane anibane
Class 1 omne ongemne mne akamne
Class 2 abane abangebane bane ababane
Class 3 omne ongemne mne awumne
Class 4 emine engemine mine ayimine
Class 5 eline elingeline line aliline
Class 6 amane angemane mane awamane
Class 7 esine esingesine sine asisine
Class 8 ezine ezingezine zine azizine
Class 9 ene engene ine ayiyine
Class 10 ezine ezingezine zine azizine
Class 11 olune olungelune lune alulune
Class 14 obune obungebune bune abubune
Class 15 okune okungekune kune akukune
Class 17 okune okungekune kune akukune

Yup'ik

Noun

ne (absolutive ena)

  1. house

Zou

Pronunciation

Noun

ne

  1. lip

Verb

ne

  1. (transitive) to eat

Derived terms

References

  • Lukram Himmat Singh (2013) A Descriptive Grammar of Zou, Canchipur: Manipur University, pages 40-41

Zulu

Etymology

From Proto-Bantu *-nàì.

Adjective

-ne

  1. four

Inflection

Adjective concord, tone L
Modifier Copulative
positive negative positive negative
1st singular engimune engingemune ngimune angimune
2nd singular omune ongemune umune awumune
1st plural esibane esingebane sibane asibane
2nd plural enibane eningebane nibane anibane
Class 1 omune ongemune mune akamune
Class 2 abane abangebane bane ababane
Class 3 omune ongemune mune awumune
Class 4 emine engemine mine ayimine
Class 5 eline elingeline line aliline
Class 6 amane angemane mane awamane
Class 7 esine esingesine sine asisine
Class 8 ezine ezingezine zine azizine
Class 9 ene engene, engeyine ine, yine ayiyine
Class 10 ezine ezingezine zine azizine
Class 11 olune olungelune lune alulune
Class 14 obune obungebune bune abubune
Class 15 okune okungekune kune akukune
Class 17 okune okungekune kune akukune

Derived terms

References